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Greg Larrick Tyler Robb Florian Dudde Alex Ramirze.

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Presentation on theme: "Greg Larrick Tyler Robb Florian Dudde Alex Ramirze."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greg Larrick Tyler Robb Florian Dudde Alex Ramirze

2 Parliamentary Monarchy in England => ruled by House of Stuarts; Elizabeth I. died childless => Jacob VI. As Jacob I. became King of England & Ireland (ruled from 1603 - 1625) King Charles I. ruled England (1625 – 1949) but abused his power => Petition of Rights (1628) to limit King’s power Short Parliament for 3 weeks in 1640 Long Parliament for 8 years 1640-1648 English Civil War with: Cavaliers (pro Charles I.) Vs. Roundheads (pro. Engl. Parliament)

3  1642-1651= series of armed conflicts between the Cavaliers and the Roundheads; ended with parliamentary victory  It was a response to the Reformation and a growing middle class!  Roundheads won because of an alliance with Scotland => Solemn league & Covenant;  Reorganization of Parl. Army under Cromwell through iron discipline and strong independent rel. sentiment  Cromwell favored neither episcopal system of the king nor the pure Presbyterian system of the Solemn League & Covenant; he tolerated an established majority church with Protestant’s freedom  Charles I. tried to restore England => was failed by Cromwell and led to his execution  The Restoration = time of transition from a military dictatorship to a republic by Oliver Cromwell and his followers

4  Glorious Revolution = Overthrow of King James II. of England by English Parliament and William III. Of Orange (Dutch)  It was a great rejoining which led to a hereditary monarchy without a legal requirement; Charles II. Favored the Cath. Church  Glorious Revolution of 1688/1689 in which enemies of the English royalty and the Stuarts finally won the fight about the power of England  Parliament = agency of the government! Impact on today  Afterwards William III. & Mary II. (Protestants) married and ruled England (1689 – 1702)  Bill of Rights was passed on 16 December 1689 => established new rights for the British Parliament and gave the right to petition the monarch

5  Walpole was the First Prime Minister of G.B. & fought for the people’s, especially the middle classes’ rights  He was a Whig and had big influence on the Cabinet under his Premiership  Fought against the British royalty and wanted to give more rights to the middle class

6  Huge and rapid population growth after the Glorious Revolution  Age of Walpole set England on a path against absolutist rule => more rights for the middle class  Mary II. As Queen of England with William III. Helped women to gain more rights, even though they just had to take care of the families

7  During the seventeenth century, Europe split between two forms of government: Absolutism and Constitutionalism.  Under Absolutist rule, a king exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government.  France best exemplified this political system.

8  Preceding Louis XIV, Cardinal Richelieu and Mazarin centralized authority in France by forcing nobles to adhere to the king, and revoking protestant rights.  When Louis XIV took to the throne in 1643, he pushed towards absolutism by making himself the head of propaganda.  Influenced by Bishop Bossuet, Louis believed he possessed the divine right of kings, and, therefore, should rule without limitations.  To cement his absolutist rule, Louis XIV had to ensure the support of his nobles.

9  To ensure the happiness of his nobles Louis XIV renovated the palace of Versailles in 1661.  Here, he could keep a close eye over the nobles, so as to suppress notions of revolution.  The king’s plan succeeded, and, preoccupied with leisurely court life, the nobles remained loyal to him.

10  With his nobles in line, Louis XIV proceeded to unify religion within France.  To ensure an entirely Catholic nation, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1865, effectively making Protestantism illegal.  Remaining protestants were offered subsidies to convert, forced to quarter troops, harassed, and eventually imprisoned.  Ironically, despite his intentions to strengthen his rule with the revocation, Louis XIV only weakened it.

11  Through the administration of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the financial advisor to Louis XIV from 1665 to 1683, France developed an economic base capable of funding future wars.  Colbert increased the Taille, a tax on the peasantry the provided a major source of royal income.  France grew into a Mercantilist nation, in which the government controlled the economy, aiming to maximize foreign exports and internal reserves of bullion.

12  Louis had a penchant for war, believing it would increase the strength of his nation.  Due to conflicting dynastic claims in Spain between Austria and France, Louis entered the War of Spanish Succession from 1701 to 1714.  Louis wished to seat Philip V in the Spanish throne, for he promised French allegiance.  Under the peace of Utrecht, Philip V took the throne, but had to sever his ties to France.  Ultimately, the war further weakened the absolutist rule of Louis XIV.

13  Louis XIV weakened the French economy through his various wars and religious policies.  The predominance of absolutism made it difficult fro France to develop effective institutions of representation and self- government.  Despite his flaws, Louis XIV laid the foundation for a new French empire by extending trade into Asia and colonizing North America.

14  During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Europe moved away from medieval and ancient views of nature, refining the studies of chemistry, physics, biology, and astronomy.  For the first time, Europeans viewed the world in rational, mechanistic terms.

15  Nicolaus Copernicus  Tycho Brahe  Johannes Kepler  Galileo Galilei  René Descartes  Francis Bacon  Isaac Newton

16  Copernicus sparked the scientific revolution with the publication of On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.  In this work, he envisioned the earth as heliocentric rather than geocentric.  The sun sat as the center of the universe in his theory.

17  Tycho Brahe combined the Copernican and Ptolemaic systems to create the most accurate astronomical system of its time.  Under his Tychonic system, the sun and moon revolved around the Earth, while the other planets revolved around the sun.  Johannes Kepler, the assistant of Brahe, used empirical data to derive the laws of planetary motion.

18  Galileo championed the theories of Copernicus, supporting them with empirical data.  To collect his data, Galileo refined the telescope.  Despite the validity of his theories, Galileo met persecution from the Catholic church, and spent his last days under house arrest.

19  In his Discourse on the Method, Descartes proposed the use of rationality and deductive reasoning, drawing specific conclusions from generalized evidence.  Contrary to Descartes, Francis Bacon advocated empiricism and inductive reasoning, drawing broad conclusions from specific evidence.  For his contributions to empiricism, Bacon is often considered the father of the scientific method.

20  Isaac Newton revolutionized physics and mathematics in his Principia Mathemitaca.  In his work, he described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion.  Through his theories, Newton defined the world as mechanical, encouraging future scientists to approach it in a rational manner.

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