Presentation on theme: "The English Revolution. Religious Tensions Left Over From the Reformation - France 30 years of fighting breaks out in France and ends in 1589 Henry IV."— Presentation transcript:
Religious Tensions Left Over From the Reformation - France 30 years of fighting breaks out in France and ends in 1589 Henry IV becomes new French King. He is a Huguenot or French Protestant Henry IV decides to become a Catholic to appease the majority The Edict of Nantes is signed - allowed French citizens to choose their own religion - France officially becomes a Catholic nation with Huguenots given full rights
Religious Tensions Left Over From the Reformation - Spain Phillip II of Spain is determined to spread the Catholic faith through war Spain had recently scored a number of victories against the Ottoman-Turks Phillip II decides to conquer The Netherlands which was Protestant William of Orange successfully defends the Netherlands and turns the Dutch United Provinces into a powerful and independent nation – Spain ends up bankrupt and weak
Early Government In England During the Middle Ages England establishes a monarchy Kings ruled as absolute monarchs (total power) In 1215 King John I signed the Magna Carta (Great Charter) -Established that the king is limited -Gave birth to the parliament. The king was to share power with this parliament
Religious Tensions Left Over From the Reformation - England In England their also exists tensions between the Catholics and the Protestants Henry VIII had made England a Protestant nation (Anglican Church) His daughter Mary had tried to once again make England a Catholic nation - she repressed Protestant leaders and was known as Bloody Mary – she had no heir, Elizabeth takes over - Her sister Elizabeth made England Protestant again King Phillip attempted to invade England to restore Catholic rule to the country - Spanish Armada is defeated by English navy
England Moves towards revolution Elizabeth has no children bringing the Tudor Dynasty to an end - the Tudors had worked relatively well with the English law making body (parliament) New family the Stuarts come to power - James VI of Scotland become James I of England - believe in the divine right of kings: God put the king in charge. The king answers only to God and not to any man. - Major tensions between Stuarts and parliament
England Moves towards revolution Puritans (English Calvinists) steadily gained power in the parliament - wanted to purify the church of England. This meant removal of Catholic influence. They believed the work of the Reformation had not gone far enough - Puritans were very strict and well educated. Charles I became next king after James I Charles I and Parliament did not get along at all
England Moves towards revolution Charles I married a Spanish Catholic. He instituted some Catholic traditions into the Anglican Church The Puritans in Parliament resented Charles I and relations became tense Charles I made a habit of dismissing parliament whenever they challenged him Eventually Parliament demanded the king give them more power. Charles I was a divine right monarch and would not compromise with parliament.
Civil war breaks out in England Parliament demands that England become a limited monarchy where the king and parliament would share power Charles I dismisses parliament and war breaks out The Parliament is led by Oliver Cromwell and the Roundheads (had short hair cuts to show they were not royalty) Charles and his military are called the Cavaliers The roundheads eventually win because they are able to raise a well trained and well paid army.
Post-Civil war England Immediately after the fighting the king is captured and Cromwell declares martial law Cromwell dismisses much of parliament. Those he allows to remain are called the Rump Parliament Charles I is put on trial for treason. He is found guilty and executed. England is now considered a Commonwealth Cromwell eventually dismisses all of parliament and has himself declared Lord Protectorate
Post-Civil war England English citizens eventually become tired of Cromwell and the Puritans with their strict ways – plays outlawed, strict moral codes When Cromwell dies Parliament restores the monarchy under Charles II (Restoration) - Charles has a brother James II who becomes the king (he had no legitimate children) James II is openly Catholic which causes problems for mainstream Protestant England English decide to tolerate James II because his daughters are Protestant and will one day take over crown. Late in life he has a Catholic son. This scares parliament and majority of English citizens.
Post- Civil war England Parliament invites William of Orange to be the king of England - William is Protestant and related to English royalty through marriage - William and his wife Mary agree to be the monarchs of England and come to London. - No fighting during the transition. English call this change The Glorious Revolution.
Post-Civil War England William and Mary sign the English Bill of Rights - parliament becomes the true ruling body of England - monarchy has some powers, mostly to uphold traditions - English citizens are guaranteed some basic rights. Examples: rights to bear arms, right to a trial by jury