Presentation on theme: "Political Revolution in England English Civil War & Glorious Revolution Charles I Oliver Cromwell Charles II James II William & Mary See slides and then."— Presentation transcript:
Political Revolution in England English Civil War & Glorious Revolution Charles I Oliver Cromwell Charles II James II William & Mary See slides and then answer reflection prompt for NB #2
The Magna Carta (1215) What: A signed contract between English nobles & the King of England written in medieval times. Importance: Established the idea that the King had limited (not absolute) power and that even the King needed to govern according to agreed upon law. –Established basic legal rights for all citizens (“Rights of Englishmen”) –King must ask for popular consent for taxes (“Power of the Purse”) –Eventually led to the establishment of British Parliament (law making branch of government)
Officially, England Has a Limited Absolute Monarchy (after the Magna Carta) English Kings still resisted sharing power! Limited Monarchy British kings rule with checks & balances to power as described in Magna Carta Ex: Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and seeks to increase his own power (and that of monarchy) in late 1500’s
Conflict in England Between Monarchs & Parliament Elizabeth I dies 1603 with no heirs –Frequent conflicts with Parliament over $$ –Amasses large debts & needed help from Parliament James I (Scottish cousin) assumes throne –Felt he had absolute power because of “divine right” –Conflicts with Parliament over money, religion & power “Kings are justly called Gods, for that….they exercise a manner…of a divine power upon earth” James I
In 1625 James I dies, Charles I (son) assumes throne (married to a Catholic) Several times Charles I dissolves (tells them to go home) Parliament when it refused his requests for more money. To pay debts, Charles I imposes many fees & fines on the English people. Also, many religious Protestants (called “Puritans”) distrust Charles as pro-Catholic. All this hurts his popularity greatly. Tensions Increase Under Charles I In 1628, Charles I asks Parliament for money again and is forced to accept the Petition of Right, but he later ignores these promises to Parliament… Parliament is angry!
Petition of Right  What: Promises by Charles I limiting the King’s power to tax, imprison, house soldiers and make rules during peace time. Importance: Charles I ignores promises (but revises the idea that a monarchs power is not absolute) –Between 1629 and 1642 England falls into conflict over the power of the King versus that of Parliament (led by Puritan Oliver Cromwell) Charles I: My power is absolute! Oliver Cromwell and most of Parliament: Parliament makes laws that even the King must follow!
English Civil War ( ) Charles I fights to maintain absolute power supported by Royalists or Cavaliers Oliver Cromwell leads Roundheads in fight against King’s forces Cromwell’s New Model Army victorious by 1646 and takes King prisoner. Charles I brought to trial for treason in 1649 –Charles is executed publicly after trial –Shows that royal power not “divine” –Cromwell assumes power
Oliver Cromwell Puritan leader rules England for 9 years after execution of Charles I Attempts to impose strict Puritan religious morals on England Helped write a republican Constitution, but eventually ignored it Grew increasingly unhappy with Parliament and then dissolved it Eventually ruled as military dictator until his death in 1658 He was replaced by a new King Charles II (“Restoration”) What is ironic about Cromwell’s rule?
Parliament asks Charles II (son of executed Charles I) to “restore” monarchy after Cromwell’s death in 1658 During the Restoration there is more freedom for people The Impact of Enlightenment Ideas Ex: 1679 Habeas Corpus Act is passed Prisoners had the right to be reviewed before a Judge Judges (not King) decided whether a prisoner should stand trial The King could not just put someone in jail for questioning his authority
Importance: William & Mary agree to fully recognize the power of Parliament ending absolute monarchy in England and agree to a Bill of Rights & Constitutional Monarchy “Glorious Revolution” (1688) Parliament invites William & Mary to replace Exiled James II… transition of power happens with no violence Catholic James II (brother) replaces Charles II…angers Protestant British James II has daughter Mary (Protestant) who marries Dutch Protestant William of Orange
No suspending of Parliaments laws No levying of taxes without Parliament approval No interfering with freedom of speech No penalty for peaceful protesting of grievances English Bill of Rights 1689 More clearly limits royal power
Constitutional Monarchy (1689) After 1689 no monarch could rule without Parliaments consent Cabinet developed as a way to share law making power between the King and Parliament. Cabinet leaders called “ministers” ceremonially chosen by King (with consent of Parliament) and represent the majority party of Parliament. The leader of Parliament became known as the Prime Minister Foundation for the current government of England! England becomes a
NB#2: English Political Revolution Reflection Pick any FOUR people or events described in the slides. Rank them in order of importance (1 = most important) in understanding how England transitioned from an Absolute Monarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy during the 1600’s. Write a paragraph explaining why you ranked the people/events the way you did.