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The Development of the English Monarchy World History - Libertyville HS.

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1 The Development of the English Monarchy World History - Libertyville HS

2 English History, William the Conqueror ( ) – French (Norman) became King after Battle of Hastings (1066) – Brutally suppressed English nobility (Native English nobles held only 8% land by 1086) Around 1215, nobles rebelled vs. King John – Barons angry at his attempts to further expand power of throne (high taxes, unsuccessful wars)

3 Magna Carta (1215) Barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta (“Great Charter”) – First limit on King’s power – Protected nobles’ privileges – Guaranteed due process (notice & hearing) – Created a Royal Council of barons to check king’s power – Required all taxes to be approved by Royal Council

4 Parliament Royal Council gradually evolved into Parliament Over centuries, became an elected body of lords and commoners – Relations between king & parliament depended upon strength of king – Strong king could control or ignore parliament – Weak king forced to work with and be challenged by parliament By 1341, it was established that no law could be made, nor any tax levied, without the consent of both Houses and the king

5 Stuart Dynasty ( ) Elizabeth I died in 1603, without heirs Crown passed to her Scottish cousin, James I (r ) – Presbyterian king of Scotland – Wanted to be an absolute monarch, like continental kings (no limits, from Parl.) – Fought w/ Parliament over taxes, war Parl wanted no wars on Cont. (30 Years War) Religious conflict (Parl=Puritan vs king = Presbyterian)

6 Charles I (r ) Protestant, but married Catholic princess from France Believed self to be appointed by God as king – Fought vs. Parl. for money to fight in 30 Years War – When he didn’t get $$, he dissolved Parl. Ruled for 11 years, Levied taxes w/o Parl. approval Jailed nobles w/o due process

7 English Civil War, : b/c of rebellion in Ireland, Charles needed $$$; brought Parl. back into session – Parl. ignored $ request and passed laws limiting king’s power – Charles tried to have Parl. arrested; Parl. fled, but commoners attacked King! Civil war started: Royalists vs. “Roundheads”

8 English Civil War, Royalists – Supporters of King Charles – Generally nobility, Catholics, Irish, Scottish Roundheads – Supporters of Parliament – Generally commoners, Puritans Oliver Cromwell – Leader of Roundheads – Puritan (strict Anglicans) – Creates “New Model Army”, a professional army – Royalists fought in traditional manner (peasant levies, etc)

9 English Civil War, King Charles captured Parliament debated what to do… – New Model Army marched on Parliament and arrested those that wanted to negotiate with Charles – Only let 75 members in to vote to try King for treason – Tried and sentenced to death by “Rump Parliament” Executed on 1/30/1649

10 Cromwell’s Commonwealth of England Cromwell became “Lord Protector” until his death in 1658 – Essentially a military dictatorship – Parliament did not meet Cromwell spent his time subduing Ireland & Wales Also passed morality laws outlawing the theater, comedies In 1660, the Parl. invited Charles’ son to become king of England (already ruling as king of Scotland)

11 Charles II (r ) Charles II agreed to habeas corpus law – Every prisoner has the right to be brought before a judge to determine if wrongfully arrested – All prisoners have right to a trial (no indefinite imprisonment w/o trial) Attempted religious tolerance of Catholics, but that was blocked by Parl. Known as the “Merry Monarch” b/c he liked to party

12 James II Charles II died w/o an heir so his brother, James, became James II – James was… Catholic! – James flaunts his religion to a horrified Parl, nation – Also thought he was an absolute monarch – Dissolved Parl when it spoke out against him James then had a son – Line of Catholic English kings frightened a protestant Parl.

13 The “Glorious Revolution” (1688) Parl. invited James II’s daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange (Dutch guy) to become king and queen of England Bloodless revolt – William & Mary showed up, James II fled to Ireland (later to Spain)

14 William & Mary Constitutional Monarchy – W & M were partners w/ Parl, not absolute monarchs Signed Bill of Rights that limited the power of the monarchy – No suspension of Parl. laws – No taxes w/o Parl. approval – No limits on speech, in Parl. – Safety for people to complain against King Est. Cabinet (link between Parl., monarch) – Prime minister runs gov’t – Center of policy making, gov’t in England, even today


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