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Unit XIX - The Age of Absolutism and The Scientific Revolution

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1 Unit XIX - The Age of Absolutism and The Scientific Revolution
England, France, Spain (1-11) Austria-Hungary (12-13) Prussia (14-15) Scientific Revolution (16-20) Copyright 2006; C. Pettinato, RCS High School, All Rights Reserved

2 1. A Look at the Absolute Power of the Spanish, French, and English Kings from 1550 - 1800
A. What is the Age of Absolutism? The period of time during which kings of western Europe had absolute control over their national governments and societies. B. What is the Divine Right Theory? The theory that stated that kings had a god given right to rule their nations as they wished. 1. Absolutism in Spain, France, and England (1550 – 1800) A. Self explanatory B. Self explanatory

3 2. The Spanish Kings A. Charles V 1. 1519-1556
2. Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella 3. Also ruled the Holy Roman Empire 4. Constant warfare-with France, Protestants and Ottoman Empire 5. Became a monk B. King Philip II 1. Son of Charles V 2. Ruled Spain, Netherlands, southern Italy and Americas 3. Centralized power 4. Absolute Monarch 5. Guardian of Catholic Church 6. Wars-Netherlands, Ottomans, Spanish Armada 7. Golden Century 8. Strong Spanish King 2. The Spanish Kings A. Charles V He reigned for 37 years and finally could not handle the pressure of being a king and handed over rule to his son to become a monk. 2. He was the grandson the King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They drove the Moors (Muslims) out of Spain, expelled the Jews, and financed the voyages of Christopher Columbus with the money from the Moors. 3. He ruled the Holy Roman Empire in addition to ruling Spain so he had to defend a very large portion of Europe. 4. He was in constant warfare with either France, the Protestants, and the German and Dutch nobles in the Holy Roman Empire who wanted nothing to do with a Catholic king, He also fought the Ottoman Empire. 5. Self explanatory B. King Philip II 1. Self explanatory 2. Self explanatory 3. He continued the process of centralizing power that his father had started. 4. He was truly an absolute monarch and a very good king who made Spain into the most powerful nation in the world. 5. Self explanatory 6. He conducted many wars and was a tireless worker expanding Spanish Catholic power throughout Europe. He battled Protestant rebels protesting the Inquisition in the Netherlands (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg), the Advances of the Ottoman armies taking Romanian and Hungarian territory in eastern Europe, and sent the Spanish Armada against Protestant England. The armada was defeated. Even though he lost the battle with England, Philip remained the most powerful monarch in Europe. Spain prospered. 7. The century from 1550 – was known as the Golden Century for Spain.

4 3. Philip II of Spain 3. Philip II – the most powerful King of Spain

5 4. The Decline of Spain What were the reasons for the decline of Spanish power? A. Defeat of the Spanish Armada B. Heavy taxes on middle class C. The drain on the treasury D. Neglect of farming and trade with the colonies E. The slowdown of gold F. The expulsion of Jews and Muslims 4. The Decline of Spain Reasons: A. Self explanatory B. The heavy taxes on the middle class reduced his popularity and made the nobles of the Netherlands revolt and declare their independence. C. The constant wars drained the gold from Spain’s New World treasury. D. The neglect of farming and trade with the colonies prevented the colonies from being much commercial or agricultural assistance to Spain once the all the gold was taken. E. Self explanatory – from the New World F. The expulsion of Jews and Muslims hurt Spain because many of the scientists, teachers, doctors, lawyers, and scholars were expelled from a country that needed them to advance into the modern world.

6 5. The Spanish Armada 5. The Spanish Armada
This painting shows the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 by the English. This marks the beginning of the end of Spain’s dominance over the rest of the countries of the world.

7 6. The Kings of France A. What tore France apart between 1560 and 1590? B. What was the goal of Henry IV and when did he rule? C. Who was Armand Richelieu? 6. The Kings of France A. Between 1560 and 1590 the wars between the French Huguenots (Protestants) and Catholics tore up France. B. Henry IV was a king who ruled France from 1589 – His goal was to restore order to France and he tried to do this by issuing the Edict of Nantes in This proclamation gave religious toleration to the Huguenots and allowed them to fortify their cities to protect themselves. His goal was “a chicken in every pot” - food for all. He also wanted justice, improved roads and bridges, and to reduce the power of the nobles. C. Armand Richelieu was a Roman Catholic Cardinal who ruled France upon the death of Henry IV because Louis XIII (Henry’s son) was too young to rule. When Louis was old enough he made Richelieu finance minister. Richelieu’s main goal was to destroy the power of the nobles and the Huguenots. He broke the power of the nobles and broke down the walls of the Huguenots but allowed them to practice their religion.

8 7. The Sun King – Louis XIV (1661-1733)
A. “I am the State” B. The symbol of the sun C. No meetings of the Estates General D. The strongest army in Europe E. The splendor of Versailles F. Successes G. Failures H. “Balance of Power” 8. The Sun King – Louis XIV (1661 – 1733) A. This phrase sums up the ideas of Louis XIV – absolute authority and power. B. He took the sun as his royal symbol because the sun stands at the center of the universe as he stands at the center of the sate. C. He did not convene the Estates General once during his reign. He felt they were useless and unimportant. They also had no power, unlike Parliament in England which had much power. D. He built the strongest army in Europe. E. He built the beautiful palace of Versailles just outside of Paris to entertain nobles and heads of state. He invited the noble to live there in luxury with their families. His real purpose was to keep his eye on the nobles. F. Successes; French culture and manners and customs replaced those of Italy as the standard in Europe. G. Failures; foreign policies and domestic affairs – a disaster. He bankrupted France for the next one hundred years. H. This phrase came to be used by the English and Dutch because they fought France to keep France from becoming too big and too powerful and dominating Europe. They wanted to restore the “balance of power”

9 8. Louis XIV – The Sun King 8. Louis XIV – The Sun King
Self explanatory

10 9. A Different Story in England
A. How did Parliament grow in power? 1. The annulments of Henry VIII 2. The Act of Supremacy 3. The ‘power of the purse” 4. Good Queen Bess – Elizabeth I (Tudor) 5. King James I (Stuart) v. Parliament 6. The English Civil War ( ) 7. The execution of King Charles I 8. The Commonwealth 9. A Different Story in England A. How did Parliament grow in power? 1. Henry VIII wanted Parliament to give it’s approval to his annulments and they did. (power of Parliament) 2. The Act of Supremacy in 1534 in which Parliament made Henry the head of The Church of England. 3. Parliament had the ability to approve or deny the king’s use of money since the days of King John. 4. Elizabeth I was a good queen as she frequently consulted with Parliament but she tolerated no disrespect from it. She had no heir. 5. King James I was a terrible king (a Stuart). He began to lecture Parliament about their duties and the divine right of kings. Clashed with Parliament over money and foreign policy. 6. Charles I inherited the throne and continually clashed with Parliament. Parliament tried and executed his ministers and he arrested many members of Parliament. The English Civil War took place between 1642 and 1649 and was the Cavaliers (nobles who supported Charles I) and the Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell, a general who supported Parliament. The roundheads won and Charles I was executed in 1649. 7. Previously covered 8. The Commonwealth refers to English government after the execution of Charles I when the Parliament’s House of Commons ruled England. It abolished the monarchy and Parliaments’ upper house, The House of Lords ) The Puritans had a lot of influence during this period of time. The Stuarts (Charles II) were restored in 1660 and promised to cooperate with Parliament.

11 10. The Glorious Revolution
A. Who was King Charles II? B. Who was King James II? C. What was the Glorious Revolution? D. How did the monarchy change under William and Mary? 10. The Glorious Revolution A. Charles II was the King of England who was restored to power in 1660 and who ruled very well and worked with Parliament even though he believed in absolute monarchy (remember his father was executed) B. James II was the brother of Charles II who inherited the throne in He angered the people and Parliament quickly by appointing many Catholics to government positions and was replaced by William and Mary in 1688 (Mary was James’ Protestant daughter). C. The Glorious Revolution was the change of power without bloodshed from the reign of James II to the reign of William and Mary. (Catholic leaning and uncooperative to Protestant leaning and cooperative with Parliament) D. The monarchy changed because William and Mary signed and accepted the following decrees by Parliament: a. the monarchy must convene Parliament regularly b. the House of Commons has the “power of the purse” c. the monarchy could no longer interfere in Parliamentary debates or suspend any laws d. the monarchy must accept the Bill of Rights making England a limited monarchy. e. the monarchy must accept the idea that no Catholic could assume the throne F. the monarchy must guarantee rights to the English citizens which could not be suspended

12 11. Video 11. Video Self explanatory

13 12. The Bill of Rights in England
This is a picture of the English Bill of Rights, the document accepted by William and Mary, forever changing the monarchy in England.

14 13. The Rise of Austria A. The Thirty Years War
B. The Peace of Westphalia C. How did the Hapsburgs affect Austria? 1. they controlled Austria (Catholic) 2. they added Bohemia, and parts of Poland and Italy 3. they controlled very diverse groups and gave them some unity (Magyars, Slavs) 4. they never centralized authority like the other kings of Europe (2nd class kingdom) 13. The Rise of Austria A. The Thirty Years War: It began when Ferdinand, the Hapsburg King of Bohemia (Czech Republic) started to control the Protestants and nobles. This turned into a widespread revolt with Ferdinand having the support of Spain, France, and Poland (Catholic states). Protestant states such as Netherlands and Sweden sent troops to help the Protestants. Many villages were burned by roving bands of soldiers. One third of the population of Germany was killed. There was disease and famine in the Holy Roman Empire which really wasn’t an empire anymore but a scattered group of provinces spread throughout parts of central Europe (remember the power of the German nobles?). B. In 1648 the groups accepted the Peace of Westphalia. France gained territory, The Hapsburgs lost because all of the German nobles won their independence (Germany was divided into 360 separate states), and the Netherlands and Switzerland were recognized as countries. C. How did the Hapsburgs affect Austria? 1. Self explanatory 2. Self explanatory 3. Besides the Magyars and Slavs they also controlled some Poles ,and Italians as well as other groups in the Balkans (the peninsula that Greece is on). 4. They never centralized authority or became a strong kingdom because they were so diverse.

15 14. The Austrian Empire 14. The Austrian Empire
Notice the many different colors representing different ethnic or religious groups.

16 15. Prussia A. How did the Hohenzollerns from northeastern Germany unite many north German states into a country? 1. Frederick II inherited the throne in 1740 2. Frederick’s Prussia challenged Austria by taking Silesia from Austria and declaring independence, Frederick was a great warrior (Frederick the Great) 3. Frederick continued to win several later wars making Prussia a strong military power. 15. Prussia A. The Hohenzollern family ruled the northern German states and united them into a country. The most famous Hohenzollern leader was Frederick II or Frederick the Great. 1. Self explanatory 2. Self explanatory 3. Self explanatory. This is the very beginning of the unification of Germany

17 16. Map of Prussia 16. Map of Prussia Self explanatory

18 17. The Scientific Revolution
A. What was the Scientific Revolution and when did it take place? 1. The change that took place in science starting in the mid 1500’s and continuing to the 1700’s. 17. The Scientific Revolution A. What was the Scientific Revolution and when did it take place? 1. Self explanatory

19 18. People of the Scientific Revolution
A. Niccolaus Copernicus - Polish, Heliocentric Theory B. Tycho Brahe – Danish, support of Copernicus C. Johannes Kepler – German, mathematician, orbits of the planets, birth date of Jesus D. Galileo Galilei – Italian, telescope, moon mts., sunspots, confirmed Copernicus, lenses E. Isaac Newton – English, mathematician gravity F. Robert Boyle – English, individual elements vs. chemical compounds 18. People of the Scientific Revolution A. Copernicus – the Heliocentric Theory states that the sun is the center of the universe, not the earth, and that all of the planets rotate around it. B. Self explanatory C. Johannes Kepler – calculated the orbits of the planets and described them as elliptical rather than circular. Also calculated the alignment of Saturn and Venus in the constellation Picies showing themselves as the star that guided the 3 wise men kings to Bethlehem at the birth of Jesus. This occurred at 7BC. (Probably late October) D. Galileo Galilei was brought before the Dominican court of the Inquisition in Genoa for his discovery supporting Copernicus. He was forced to recant his theories – after his book, already circulated around Europe. He worked with lenses and created the first telescope. E. Self explanatory F. Robert Boyle – the beginning of modern chemistry

20 19. Video 19. Video Self explanatory

21 20. Accomplishments (cont.)
G. Andreas Vesalius – Italian. detailed study of human anatomy H. Ambrose Pare – French, ointment preventing infection, stitching of wounds I. William Harvey – English, circulation of the blood J. Francis Bacon – English, experimental method to arrive at truth K. Rene Descartes – French, human reasoning is the best way to understand 20. Accomplishments (cont.) G. Self explanatory H. Self explanatory I. Self explanatory J. Francis Bacon – popularized the use of the scientific method (hypothesis, experimentation, conclusion) to obtain knowledge – verification through repeating the process and producing the same results K. Self explanatory

22 21. The Tomb of Galileo Galilei in Florence
The tomb of Galileo located in the Church of Santa Croce in Florence, Italy. The three figures mourning his death represent astronomy, mathematics, and physics.

23 22. The Church of Santa Croce, Florence, Italy
The is the Franciscan Church in Florence Italy where some of the famous artists, writers, and scientists of the Renaissance and Scientific Revolution are entombed. Machiavelli – writer, philosopher Galileo Galilei – astronomer, mathematician, physics Michelangelo – artist, sculptor, architect Raphael – artist Donatello – sculptor – tomb only, the body is in Ravenna which refuses to give him up. (Ravenna was a rival city state to Florence in the 1300’s, 1400’s, and 1500’s – competing for the best artists. Donatello lived there for a time) The view is with a telephoto lense from Piazelle di Michelangelo from the south side of the Arno River.

24 23. Video 23. Video Self explanatory

25 24. Galileo Galilei 23. Galileo Galilei Self explanatory

26 25. Important Terms and People
A. absolute monarch B. divine right theory C. Philip II – Spain D. Spanish Armada E. Golden Century F. Henry IV – France G. Estates General H. Louis XIV (Sun King) I. Versailles J. balance of power K. Armand Richelieu L. James I M. Charles I N. Cavaliers O. Roundheads P. Bill of Rights (Eng.) Q. The Commonwealth R. Glorious Revolution S. 30 Years War T. The Hapsburgs U. The Hohenzollerns V. Frederick II (the Great) 24. Important Terms and People All terms and people previously explained

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