Presentation on theme: "Unit III: Absolutism “You will assist me with your councils when I ask for them. I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. I order."— Presentation transcript:
Unit III: Absolutism “You will assist me with your councils when I ask for them. I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport without my command; to render account to me personally each day and to favor no one.” What is absolutism according to this quote? The monarch has absolute power over all aspects of government.
France in the Age of Absolutism Henry of Navarre became the first Bourbon King in France, Henry IV. How did Henry strengthen France? 1.Converted to Catholicism. “Paris is worth a mass” 2.Issued the Edict of Nantes- An order that guaranteed freedom of worship and political rights to all religions. Duke of Sully 3.Appointed Duke of Sully to solve nations financial problems. 1.Issued the Paulette, a tax on those who purchased offices. 2.Established an overseas trade company (mercantalism) 3.Reduced royal debt and improved transportation
Cardinal Richelieu Goals: 1.To make the monarch absolute 2.Make France the most powerful country in Europe.
How did Richelieu strengthen France? 1.He took away the rights of Huguenots to strengthen and centralize government. 2.He weakened the power of the intendants- (regional representatives to the King; collect taxes, administer justice) 3. Gained territory due to the Thirty Years’ War; (Alsace) Treaty of Westphalia - ended the Thirty Years’ War. Effect: France became most powerful country in Europe.
Cardinal Mazarin (ruler under Louis XIV) Accomplishments: 1.Ended the Thirty Years’ War. 2.Raised taxes to increase military control. (hated by peasants)
“The Sun King” Louis XIV Divine Right of Kings-God chosen them as ruler How did Louis XIV make his power absolute?
1.Louis XIV appointed Jean Baptist Colbert as minister of finance. a.Encouraged mercantilism (trade) b.Taxed imports c.Encouraged industry and business d.Established colonies Jean Baptist Colbert
2. Louis weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from council. He was the 4 councils! 3. Made all nobles move to Versailles (palace where Louis lived) a. So he could keep an eye on them b. So all the power resides in Louis 4. Increased the power of the intendants
Decline of France’s Empire 1.Continuous Warfare with neighboring countries- invaded the Netherlands 2.France had been weakened by a series of poor harvests 3.New taxes- (salt) 4.War of Spanish Succession- A struggle for power over the next king of Spain. Louis XIV grandson took the throne but could not join with France.
France’s growth of power under Louis XIV PoliticalSocialEconomic Raised Taxes Appointed Jean Baptist Colbert (Minister of Finance) Took away the rights of the Huegenots… Encouraged the arts Made all nobility move to Versailles so he could keep an eye on them. Increased the power of the intendants
The Stuarts Rule England James VI of Scotland became James I of England after Elizabeth I had died. James offended the Puritans of Parliament by not reforming the Catholic Church.
In 1625, James I died and his son, Charles I took the throne. Charles always needed money because he was at war with Spain and France. Parliament raised the taxes for England and when they refused, Charles fired them all.
Petition of Right The king was forced to sign a document in exchange for money from Parliament called the Petition of Right. It Stated: 1.King could not imprison subjects w/o cause 2.King could not collect taxes w/o Parliaments consent 3.He could not house soldiers in private homes 4.King could not impose martial law in peacetime
English Civil War The King tried to impose the Anglican Church upon Scotland in 1637 and the Scots rebelled by forming an army. Supporters of the king in Parliament were known as Royalists or Cavaliers. Supporters of Parliament and the Puritans were known as Roundheads. From a Civil War was fought between these people.
Oliver Cromwell led the Puritans and became a general within the New Model Army. The army fought by Puritans against the King. Under Cromwell, they defeated the King in 1646 and held him prisoner. In 1649, Parliament found the Charles I guilty of treason and had him executed.
Execution of Charles I
Cromwell ruled England and established England as a common wealth. He ruled as a military dictator. The people of England asked for Charles II to return when Cromwell died in 1658 called the Restoration. Parliament passed a guarantee of freedom called Habeas Corpus; a law that guarantees a person the right to a trial before a judge.
The Glorious Revolution William and Mary took the throne of England and James II fled to France without any blood shed. Established a Constitutional Monarchy: a government where the kings powers are limited by an elected body. Bill of Rights: No suspending of Parliament No levying of taxes w/o Parliaments consent No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament No penalty for filing grievances with the king
Monarch Conflicts with Parliament James I Charles I Charles would only ask for Parliament when he needed money. Parliament tried to work with the king but he refused. James II James refused to enact reform on the Catholic practices of the English Church; did not like being told what to do. James was a Catholic and Parliament was afraid that a Catholic blood line would rule England.