17 th Century England Political and Religious Conflict under Stuarts The English Civil War (1642 – 1651) Restoration of the Monarchy (1660) The Glorious Revolution (1689)
17 th Century English Monarchy Stuart Monarchy –James I (rule 1603 – 1625) –Charles I (rule 1625 – 1649) –Charles II (1649/1660 – 1685) –James II (1685 – 1689) House of Orange (Protestant) –William III and Mary II
King James I (First Stuart Monarch, First King of Great Britain)
“The state of monarchy... is the supremest thing upon earth: for Kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon throne, but even by God himself they are called Gods.” - King James I
James I vs. Parliament Issues: –Royal sale of titles & offices –Accountability of Ministers to Parliament –Parliament’s right to intervene in foreign policy –Parliament’s right to withhold funds for war –Parliament’s right to intervene in marriage plans
Charles I (1625 – 1649) “People are governed by the pulpit more than the sword in time of peace.” - Charles I
Religious Divisions Anglican vs. Puritan vs. Catholic...
Key Questions of Civil War How is England to be governed? What is the purpose and role of Parliament? What is the relationship between Parliament and royal authority? What is the ‘proper’ faith for England?
English Civil War Parliament denounces royal acts as “illegal” Civil war erupts 1642 “Court” and “Cavaliers” vs. “Country” and “Roundheads”
Commonwealth of England Established 1649 under Puritan Cromwell –Represses Irish uprising –Conquers Scotland –Fights Dutch Republic and Spain Cromwell becomes “Lord Protector” and dissolves Parliament in 1653 Imposes taxes without parliamentary approval and purges dissenters Persecutes Anglicans and Catholics
Restoration of the Monarchy 1660 King Charles II
Q. What to do? Newly restored Stuart monarchy once again: –Opposing / dissolving parliament –Taxing without permission –Flirting with Catholicism
A. Find another heir to the throne Namely: –Protestant daughter of James, Mary –Married to Protestant Dutchman William of Orange –Supported by both English and Dutch against Catholic France and Spain
William III of Orange and Queen Mary (rule 1689 – 1702)
The “Glorious Revolution” William and 15,000 men land in England on November 5, 1688 James leaves England for exile in France Parliament (victorious again) declares throne vacant and invite William and Mary to rule Constitutional milestone in English history
English Bill of Rights (1689) Ratified revolution of 1688 Ends constitutional battles Affirmed rights of Parliament Guaranteed rights to property owners Guaranteed right of accused to rule of law Reasserts Parliament’s financial authority over government Reduced royal control over army Stipulates toleration for Protestant dissenters, etc.
17 th Century English Political Theory Thomas Hobbes John Locke (1588 – 1679) (1632 – 1704)