Presentation on theme: "Absolutism – England 16.3. 1-4 Matching. #5 Fill-in the Blank. Pd 9 1.The first Stuart monarch. 2.The leader of the Rounheads. 3.Government whose power."— Presentation transcript:
Absolutism – England 16.3
1-4 Matching. #5 Fill-in the Blank. Pd 9 1.The first Stuart monarch. 2.The leader of the Rounheads. 3.Government whose power is defined and limited by law. 4.This king was tried and executed by his own people. 5.The Civil War was between the Roundheads and the _____________ a. Oliver Cromwell e. Charles I. b. Constitutional c. James I f. Limited d. Charles II g. Puritan
1-4 Matching. #5 Fill-in the Blank. Pd 1 1.The first Stuart monarch. 2.Government whose power is defined and limited by law. 3.The leader of the Royalists. 4.This king was tried and executed by his own people. 5.The Civil War was between the Royalists and the _____________ a. Oliver Cromwell e. Charles I. b. Constitutional c. James I f. Limited d. Charles II g. Puritan
English Problems The problems in England revolved around power struggles between Parliament and the monarchy. Religion also a source of conflict. What did each claim as their basis for control?
Problems in England Queen Elizabeth’s death led to the Stuarts ascending the throne. King James Stuart. Divine right ruler, problems with Parliament (religious) as well as philosophical.
Religious Issues p. 517 James I – Calvinist/Presbyterian England – Anglican Dissenters – differed from Anglican Church -ex. Puritans What did the Puritans believe? What were their goals?
Charles I (1625) Prison w/o trial Needed money “Petition of Right” by Parliament forced on King. –Not tax w/out Pmt. –Can’t impose martial law in peacetime. What did Charles I do?
Outcome of Charles Ignored the Petition of Right -it was contradiction of absolute monarchy. Angered Scots and Parliament (Laud, prayer book) –Started revolt in Scotland, with whom does Charles need to consult with? Long Parliament – executed Laud -declared Parliament could not be dissolved -Charles used troops to arrest leaders (1642); who raised own army
Civil War What happened? Civil War ( ) between loyalists (Cavaliers) and Parliament supporters (Roundheads) Rise of Oliver Cromwell and the NMA
Civil War and Cromwell Captured Charles and tried for treason and executed - Significance? Cromwell’s rule. –Military dictator (sent parliament home) –Puritan (no fun) –Catholic persecution –Irish (catholic) treatment –Commonwealth (Republic) – Cromwell the Lord Protector (1653) Ended with death in 1658
Execution of the King
Restoration p Charles II (Charles I’s son) voted into power with limitations placed by parliament (1660) – Merry Monarch James II – Catholic, younger bro of Charles II Problems with James -Open Catholic -appointed Catholics - Acted absolutist
William and Mary and the Glorious Revolution Mary - daughter of James II married to William of Orange III from Netherlands overthrew James with little bloodshed. James flees to France.
Limited Monarchy p Constitution or legislative body limits monarch Move away from absolutism to constitutional monarchy (gov’t power is defined and limited by law). Cabinet members (Prime Minister) -where did the term “cabinet” come from? Toleration Act 1689: freedom of religion (except Catholics) Bill of Rights 1689 (only Anglicans can hold office) –Freedom of speech in Pmt. –No taxes w/out Pmt. Approval –No standing army in peacetime -Habeas Corpus
Review Which came first, the English Civil War, or “Glorious Revolution”? Which king was the leader of the Royalists in the civil war? Which duo were asked to take power in the “Glorious Revolution”, and whom did they take it from?
Quiz 1). Ruling family of Holy Roman Empire 2). Thirty Years War was fought in: 3). Led the Glorious Revolution 4). Led the roundheads to victory in the English Civil War 5). Ended Thirty Years War A. Cromwell D. William and Mary B. Hapsburgs E. Germany C. James IF. Westphalia