Presentation on theme: "Age of Absolutism Global Studies 9 Mrs. Hart. Absolutism Absolutism is a political theory that puts for the idea that a ruler has complete and unrestricted."— Presentation transcript:
Absolutism Absolutism is a political theory that puts for the idea that a ruler has complete and unrestricted control over the government and lives of the people he/she rules.
Spanish Absolutism During the 1500s, Spain was the most wealthy nation in Europe as a result of the riches brought in from its overseas empire. Charles V: King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. Philip II: ruled by divine right, the belief that the right to rule came from God, and promoted a golden age in Spain.
Reasons for Spanish Decline Rulers spent too much money on wars. Spanish relied too much on gold and silver from their colonies, and ignored business at home. Middle class became resentful because they were being taxed too heavily, and stopped supporting the government.
Absolutism in France By the late 1600s, France replaced Spain as the most powerful country in Europe. Henry IV: reduced the power of the nobles. Louis XIII: strengthened the army. Louis XIV: ruled France for 72 years, took the sun as the symbol of his power, built a lavish Palace at Versailles, made a strong army, and persecuted Protestant Huguenots.
Absolutism in Russia During the 1400s, Moscow became the center of power in Russia, under the rule of Ivan the Great. Peter the Great: brought all Russians under his authority, reduced the power of the nobles, and gained control of the Russian Orthodox Church. He worked to modernize Russia and used force when necessary to achieve his goals. He expanded Russia’s borders and gained ports on the Baltic Sea.
Absolutism in England In the 1500s and 1600s, Parliament managed to resist the consolidation of royal power. In 1603, the throne passed to the Stuarts, who came into conflict with Parliament. King James I: clashed with Parliament over financial issues and foreign policy. He dissolved Parliament and imposed his own taxes. He also conflicted with Puritans.
Absolutism in England The Stuart monarchs got support for their absolute form of rule from writer Thomas Hobbes. He supported the idea of divine right in his book The Leviathan. He said that people were by nature greedy and selfish, and needed a strong, absolute ruler to keep them in line and prevent chaos.
Puritan Revolution Charles I: inherited the throne from his father. He put his enemies in prison, imposed high taxes, dissolved Parliament, and angered the Puritans. Civil war then broke out between the king and Parliament. The war was called the Puritan Revolution. Those who supported Charles I were called the Cavaliers, and those who supported Parliament were called the Roundheads, led by Oliver Cromwell.
Puritan Revolution Cromwell finally defeated the Cavaliers, captured the king and had him beheaded. Soon afterward, the House of Commons abolished the monarchy, and Cromwell became England’s leader. After Cromwell’s death, Parliament invited Charles II to become the king of England. This restored the Stuart monarchy and in 1685, Charles’ s brother James II inherited the throne.
Glorious Revolution In 1688, James II was overthrown, and Parliament asked James II’s daughter Mary and her husband William, to take power. The transition was done non-violently and was called the Glorious Revolution. Before William and Mary took power they had to accept the English Bill of Rights, a set of laws which established a limited monarchy.
English Bill of Rights This Bill of Rights stated that the king had to work with Parliament and give control of finances to the House of Commons. abolished excessive fine and cruel or unusual punishment. affirmed habeas corpus, the right of a person to not be held in jail without first being charged with a crime.
Toleration Act The Toleration Act was also passed which granted religious toleration to Puritans and Quakers. Catholics however were denied this right.