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Revolution and Enlightenment.  Radical Change Without Violence.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolution and Enlightenment.  Radical Change Without Violence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolution and Enlightenment

2  Radical Change Without Violence

3   During the 1600’s most of Europe was controlled by absolutist leaders who asserted their power, came from god.  In England however their Parliamentary system was expanding in political power.  Civil war broke out between the king and Parliament from  Parliament won the war and created a constitutional monarchy in which both Parliament and the king shared power. Main Ideas

4   Most European monarchs believed that their power came directly from god and not from their citizens, this idea is known as “the divine right of kings”  Louis the 14 th king of France exemplified this idea. He even said “I am the State”. Absolutism in Europe

5   Ruled From 1485 until 1603  Henry VIII took control of The Church of England so that he could get a divorce.  He had Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy in 1534, which gave the king complete power over the church.  The king gained control of all church property which would enrich the crown and nobles of Parliament. The Tudors

6   In 1642 war broke out between supporters of the king and supporters of Parliament.  Oliver Cromwell led the Parliamentary army to victory.  Cromwell had the king executed and seized control of England under his control as a military dictator.  After Cromwell’s death the monarchy was restored in a weakened condition. Civil War

7   The English civil wars created the opportunity for the middle and upper classes to build a basis for representative government.  King James the 2 nd A strong absolutist monarch died in 1685 leaving an opening for Parliament to gain more power. The Beginning of the Glorious Revolution

8   King James the 2 nd A strong absolutist monarch died in 1685 leaving an opening for Parliament to gain more power.  England’s nobles and landowners did not want another king to have power and came to a consensus to bring an end to absolute monarchy.  The Glorious Revolution introduced the idea that the king must bow to the representative body in a nation.

9   The English Civil War is over.  Oliver Cromwell had become a tyrant  He dismissed Parliament and ruled  He died Glorious Revolution

10   Parliament restores the Stuarts (Charles II) to the throne  He is Protestant  His heir (his brother James is Catholic)  Parliament makes a law (Exclusion Law) to keep James from the throne  Charles dismisses Parliament  He dies and James II becomes a Catholic king.  He has a son who will be Catholic Restoration

11   Nobles and landowners did not want a Catholic king  They contacted William of Orange (Dutch leader) and his wife Mary (Protestant daughter of James)  Asked to take monarchy  They raise an army and land in England  Very little opposition (Bloodless Revolution)  If they agreed to and English Bill of Rights they would be crowned monarchs of England  They agreed—they were. Revolution


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