Paths to Constitutionalism and Absolutism England and France in the Seventeenth Century
Two Models of European Political Development Monarchy Religion Government
Monarchy England monarch’s efforts to to get new sources threatened political and economic stability France- Louis XIV made French dependent upon his patronage But allowed Parlement of Paris to oversee royal decrees And regional parlements to administer local taxation
Religion England: Protestant religious movement of Puritanism opposed Stuart monarchy and sought to limit its powers. France: Louis XIV- with support of Roman Catholics, crushed Protestant dissident movement to create religious unity.
Government English: Representative parliament ingrained in political structure, became strong institution by the end of the 17 th century. Parliamentary government included nobility and landowners to limit local monarch powers French: Nobilty supported Louis XIV Estates General was not an institutional base for reform
Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England (Words to Look For) King James I, Divine right of Kings, Puritan separatists, Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony Charles I, Petition of Right Grand Remonstrance, Oliver Cromwell, New Model Army, Lord Protector Charles II, Stuart Restoration James II, Glorious Revolution, Bill of Rights
King James I Advocated Divine Right of Kings Made his people mad by maintaining Anglican episcopacy. Enforced impositions that were unpopular with the Parlement 1620- Puritan Separatists founded Plymouth Colony Few years later- Massachusetts Bay Colony
Charles I Forced more unpopular levies/ taxes Stationed troops en route to war with Spain in private homes Parlement forced Charles I to agree to Petition of Right (Required the monarch to gain consent of Parliament before levying taxes) 1629- Parliament declared that Charles’s levying of taxes without consent was treason
Civil War 1641- Grand Remonstrance (summary of grievances) Charles invaded Parliament, civil war (1642- 1646) Oliver Cromwell(1599-1658) “Lord Protector”- led Parliamentary army (New Model Army), and won. England became a Puritan republic (1649- 1660) By 1658 exiled Charles II was permitted to return to bring peaceful rule back to Europe.
Charles II Rule is known as Stuart Restoration Brought England back to 1640s conditions When Anglican Church was at the fore of religion Monarch had little or no responsibility to call Parliament
Glorious Revolution James II renewed fears of Catholic England by appointing Catholics in positions of power 1689- Fled to France in the face of William of Orange’s army. William and Mary declared new monarchs of England This was the Glorious Revolution Bill of Rights- limited monarch powers, prohibited Roman Catholics from the throne, and guaranteed the role of Parliament in government.
Rise of absolute monarchy in France (words to look for) Louis XIV, “The Sun King”, “One King, one law, one faith”, Cardinal Mazarin Divine Right, “L etat c’est moi” Versailles, Jansenists, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Mercantilism Edict of Nantes
The Sun King Louis XIV (called himself the Sun King)- Absolute monarchy and Catholic Rule Motto- “One King, One Law, One Faith” Helped by Cardinal Mazarin- Continued Richlieu’s policy of centralization of government
I am the State! Louis XIV big on propaganda and public image Believed to have Divine Right- unbound by rules of princes and parliaments Famous for “L état c’est moi”
French Power Louis XIV’s court at Versailles Supported religious conformity Suppressed Jansenists (Group of Catholics opposed to Jesuit influence) France superior during XIV’s reign- Bureaucracy, military, and national unity Jean-Baptiste Colbert- Controller of finances, helped XIV consolidate French wealth. Colbert’s close government control of economy known as mercantilism
Edict of Nantes 1685- Louis revoked Edict of Nantes Resulted in the immediate closure of Protestant churches and schools, expulsion of protestant ministers Also, voluntary emigration of a quarter of a million French folk, who joined resistance to France throughout the world.