4 The Start of WWIArchduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary visits Sarajevo, Bosnia on June 28th, 1914Archduke is heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; he’s in Bosnia to give them political representationHe’s assassinated by Serbian nationalists (Black Hand)Austria-Hungary holds Serbia responsible; Germany supports declaration of war
5 Alliances Allied Powers Central Powers Alliance System: each nation had treaties with other nationsConflict with Serbia & Austria-Hungary causes alliances to trigger; most of Europe to brought into the conflictAllied PowersFrance, Russia, Great Britain, SerbiaCentral PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
7 War from a Global Perspective Most Europeans excited about war; thought it would end by Christmas 1914War quickly turns into a stalemateWestern front w/ trench warfare (France)Eastern front (Russia)Southern front (Greece & Ottoman Empire)War becomes war of attrition (who can wear out the other side)New technology leads to massive casualty totalsMachine gunPoisonous gasTanksAirplanesArtillery guns & shellsNo major shifts of power between
10 America’s Perspective US decides to stay neutral-IsolationismMost Americans don’t see conflict as “our problem”President Wilson’s foreign policy towards EuropeUS had no enemies; no need to pick a sideUS focus needed to be on Western HemisphereMexico, Latin American countries, etc.Wilson will run for re-election in 1916, vowing to keep US out of warSome Americans want us to enter the warPropaganda used against Germans/Central Powers
11 ClosureWhat three countries do you think are most responsible for starting the Great War? Why did you choose those three?Do you think the war would have started had Franz Ferdinand not been assassinated?How would you have felt about the United States getting involved in the war? Would you have wanted to fight? Why or why not?
12 Warm-up Guided Questions: Progressivism How does populism relate to Progressivism?What were the goals of Progressivism?What was Hull House? Who was Jane Addams?Who were Muckrakers? Name some and what they did.Who was Robert Lafollette and what was the Wisconsin Experiment?What was a failure of progressivism?What amendments were added due to progressive work?Opinion Questions: What do you think is the most lasting impact of the progressive movement? Who would you describe as a “progressive” in today’s society? If you were a muckraker, what issue would you address and why?
13 Woodrow Wilson and his Idealism For over a century, U.S. had proud tradition of isolationism from Europe.Wilson needed to instill burning idealism to inspire Americans to fightTwin goals:"Make the world safe for democracy" as a crusade ”A war to end war“U.S. did not fight for profit or territorial conquest.U.S. wanted to shape an international order in which democracy could flourish without fear of autocracy and militarism.Wilson genuine in his belief in democratic ideals and U.S. as a world model.Result: Persuaded Americans to embark on the crusade
14 US Finally Enters the War Britain blockades Europe to keep Germans from getting supplies; Germans counter w/ “U-Boats”Unrestricted Sub Warfare – attack all ships going to Great Britain or FranceLusitania – passenger ship sank in 1915 (132 Americans killed)Germany signs “Sussex Pledge” promising to stop Unrestricted Sub Warfare
15 America in WWIZimmerman Note – letter from Germany to Mexico trying to get them to attack USRussian Revolution – Russia withdraws from war, ending two-front war (forced to give up Poland to Germany)Germans break Sussex Pledge, continue sub warfareWilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany“make the world safe for democracy”Jeanette Rankin – 1st female in Congress – votes “no”
18 Americans in WarUS Military not ready to fight (only 200,000 enlisted)Selective Service Act – May 1917Had to register w/ government for draft24 million register, 3 million draftedAmerican Expeditionary Force (AEF) led by General John J. PershingTraining period of 8 monthsShipping becomes necessityShipyard employees given draft exemptionConvoy system used to protect merchant shipsBlack soldiers400,000 sign up (army)Most given non-combat duties (ie – cooks)369th Infantry saw most frontline duty during war (most decorated)Women volunteer as secretaries & nurses
21 Warm-up Questions1. What was Woodrow Wilson’s goal as he pushed the U.S. into the Great War?2. What event do you think is most responsible for pulling the U.S. into the war? Why?3. How does the United States deal with a lack of troops? Do you think this is an effective way for a country to build up an army?4. What roles did African Americans and women play in the war? Do you think the roles they played help them after the war is over?5. What new weapons were used in this war? Which do you think had the biggest impact?6. How did most Americans get their “visual” of the war? Which nations were typically portrayed as the bad guys?
22 Domestic Affairs Women took over for men in factories War Industries Board (WIB) - created to regulate economy & war effortLed by Bernard BaruchFood Administration - created to produce & conserve foodLed by Herbert HooverCommittee on Public Information – created propaganda to get support for the warLed by George Creel
23 Domestic Problems Anti-immigrant hysteria, especially against Germans Espionage & Sedition ActsLimits free speechOver 2000 people prosecutedUnions & socialists targeted & persecutedEugene V. Debs jailed for 10 yearsIndustrial Workers of the World (IWW) accused of “sabotage” b/c they urged workers to strikeLeads to Schenck v. US, 1919Espionage & Sedition Acts declared constitutional“Clear and Present Danger”
24 End of Fighting Overseas US troops give new life to Allies, but did minimal fighting (compared to others)Nicknamed “doughboys”Central powers weakenGermany tries 1 last attack in Summer of 1918 (unsuccessful)Central powers begin to crumbleAustria-Hungary surrenders in early Nov.German Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates the throne on Nov. 9thGermans call for an armistice on Nov. 11th, am)
25 ClosureWhich home front organization do you think was the most effective in helping the United States prepare/aid the Allied powers for victory? Why?Why did the United States prosper during World War 1? Do you think that prosperity will end or continue after the war is over? Why?
27 Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles, 1919 “Big Four” meet to discuss outcome of warFrance & Great Britain look to punish Germany; Italy is indifferentPresident Wilson proposes “14 Points”, looks to rebuild Europe
28 14 PointsThere should be an end to all secret diplomacy amongst countries.Freedom of the seas in peace and warThe reduction of trade barriers among nationsThe general reduction of armamentsThe adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powersThe evacuation of Russian territory and a welcome for its government to the society of nationsThe restoration of Belgium
29 14 Points continuedThe evacuation of all French territory, including Alsace-LorraineThe readjustment of Italian boundaries along clearly recognizable lines of nationalityIndependence for various national groups in Austria-HungaryThe restoration of the Balkan nations and free access to the sea for SerbiaProtection for minorities in Turkey and the free passage of the ships of all nations through the DardanellesIndependence for Poland, including access to the seaA league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike
30 Treaty of Versailles Continued France & Britain reject Wilson’s plan, only give him League of NationsGermany given sole blame, loses all colonies, military limited, territory lost, must pay war debt ($33 Billion)Separate treaties signed w/ other Central powersLeague of Nations essentially a “World Parliament” not to be confused of the United Nations.Russia left out of treaty process; fuels anger towards WestHeavy burden on Germany will lead to rise of Nazi party & WWIIWilson brings treaty home, but Congress refuses to accept itHenry Cabot Lodge leads conservatives against treatyUS does not join League of Nations; begins policy of Isolationism
31 After Effects of the War Europe is ruined9 million dead22 million casualtiesEconomies of several nations destroyedEstimated cost of war $350 BillionNew countries created (Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia)
32 After Effects Continued U.S became world's economic & political leader (notwithstanding its isolationism)Russian Revolution ultimately instituted communism (tremendous impact until 1992)USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
33 The Big Four leaders at Versailles (Britain, France, Italy, US)
36 Election of 1920 Warren G Harding vs. James M. Cox Harding will run on a platformAmbiguous on the issue of the League of Nations.Harding spoke of returning America to "normalcy“
37 Result of the Election Result: Harding d. Cox First time full-suffrage for women in national election.Results displayed public desire for change from idealism, moral overstrain, and self-sacrifice.Isolationists turned results into a death sentence for the League of Nations.Later, the U.S. would bear part of the blame for WWII as it undercut the League of Nations by refusing to join it.Security Treaty with France also rejected by the Senate.France then undertook to build a powerful military in the face of increased German power and lack of U.S. support.
38 Election COntinuedGermany, fearing France’s buildup, embarked on an even more vigorous rearmament program under Hitler. U.S. thus spurred an opportunity to emerge as a world leader and to shape world events for the benefit of peace. Two main causes for the failure of peace:The Great Depression (precipitating cause)War psychosis" (dubbed by Wilson and others): hatreds raised up in Europe by a war that lasted so long that Europe’s leaders lost all perspective