Presentation on theme: "Goal 8. Rivalries created by Imperialism (need to make country great) Industrialization Nationalism (intense loyalty to your country) Military."— Presentation transcript:
Rivalries created by Imperialism (need to make country great) Industrialization Nationalism (intense loyalty to your country) Military Buildup Treaties & Alliances
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary visits Sarajevo, Bosnia on June 28 th, 1914 Archduke is heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; he’s in Bosnia to give them political representation He’s assassinated by Serbian nationalists (Black Hand) Austria-Hungary holds Serbia responsible; Germany supports declaration of war
Alliance System: each nation had treaties with other nations Conflict with Serbia & Austria-Hungary causes alliances to trigger; most of Europe to brought into the conflict Allied Powers France, Russia, Great Britain, Serbia Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
Alliances of World War I
Most Europeans excited about war; thought it would end by Christmas 1914 War quickly turns into a stalemate Western front w/ trench warfare (France) Eastern front (Russia) Southern front (Greece & Ottoman Empire) War becomes war of attrition (who can wear out the other side) New technology leads to massive casualty totals Machine gun Poisonous gas Tanks Airplanes Artillery guns & shells No major shifts of power between
US decides to stay neutral-Isolationism Most Americans don’t see conflict as “our problem” President Wilson’s foreign policy towards Europe US had no enemies; no need to pick a side US focus needed to be on Western Hemisphere Mexico, Latin American countries, etc. Wilson will run for re-election in 1916, vowing to keep US out of war Some Americans want us to enter the war Propaganda used against Germans/Central Powers
What three countries do you think are most responsible for starting the Great War? Why did you choose those three? Do you think the war would have started had Franz Ferdinand not been assassinated? How would you have felt about the United States getting involved in the war? Would you have wanted to fight? Why or why not?
Guided Questions: Progressivism How does populism relate to Progressivism? What were the goals of Progressivism? What was Hull House? Who was Jane Addams? Who were Muckrakers? Name some and what they did. Who was Robert Lafollette and what was the Wisconsin Experiment? What was a failure of progressivism? What amendments were added due to progressive work? Opinion Questions: What do you think is the most lasting impact of the progressive movement? Who would you describe as a “progressive” in today’s society? If you were a muckraker, what issue would you address and why?
For over a century, U.S. had proud tradition of isolationism from Europe. Wilson needed to instill burning idealism to inspire Americans to fight Twin goals: "Make the world safe for democracy" as a crusade ”A war to end war“ U.S. did not fight for profit or territorial conquest. U.S. wanted to shape an international order in which democracy could flourish without fear of autocracy and militarism. Wilson genuine in his belief in democratic ideals and U.S. as a world model. Result: Persuaded Americans to embark on the crusade
Britain blockades Europe to keep Germans from getting supplies; Germans counter w/ “U- Boats” Unrestricted Sub Warfare – attack all ships going to Great Britain or France Lusitania – passenger ship sank in 1915 (132 Americans killed) Germany signs “Sussex Pledge” promising to stop Unrestricted Sub Warfare
Zimmerman Note – letter from Germany to Mexico trying to get them to attack US Russian Revolution – Russia withdraws from war, ending two-front war (forced to give up Poland to Germany) Germans break Sussex Pledge, continue sub warfare Wilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany “make the world safe for democracy” Jeanette Rankin – 1 st female in Congress – votes “no”
US Military not ready to fight (only 200,000 enlisted) Selective Service Act – May 1917 Had to register w/ government for draft 24 million register, 3 million drafted American Expeditionary Force (AEF) led by General John J. Pershing Training period of 8 months Shipping becomes necessity Shipyard employees given draft exemption Convoy system used to protect merchant ships Black soldiers 400,000 sign up (army) Most given non-combat duties (ie – cooks) 369 th Infantry saw most frontline duty during war (most decorated) Women volunteer as secretaries & nurses
American Convoy System used during WWI
1. What was Woodrow Wilson’s goal as he pushed the U.S. into the Great War? 2. What event do you think is most responsible for pulling the U.S. into the war? Why? 3. How does the United States deal with a lack of troops? Do you think this is an effective way for a country to build up an army? 4. What roles did African Americans and women play in the war? Do you think the roles they played help them after the war is over? 5. What new weapons were used in this war? Which do you think had the biggest impact? 6. How did most Americans get their “visual” of the war? Which nations were typically portrayed as the bad guys?
Women took over for men in factories War Industries Board (WIB) - created to regulate economy & war effort Led by Bernard Baruch Food Administration - created to produce & conserve food Led by Herbert Hoover Committee on Public Information – created propaganda to get support for the war Led by George Creel
Anti-immigrant hysteria, especially against Germans Espionage & Sedition Acts Limits free speech Over 2000 people prosecuted Unions & socialists targeted & persecuted Eugene V. Debs jailed for 10 years Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) accused of “sabotage” b/c they urged workers to strike Leads to Schenck v. US, 1919 Espionage & Sedition Acts declared constitutional “Clear and Present Danger”
US troops give new life to Allies, but did minimal fighting (compared to others) Nicknamed “doughboys” Central powers weaken Germany tries 1 last attack in Summer of 1918 (unsuccessful) Central powers begin to crumble Austria-Hungary surrenders in early Nov. German Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates the throne on Nov. 9 th Germans call for an armistice on Nov. 11 th, 1918 (11- 11am)
Which home front organization do you think was the most effective in helping the United States prepare/aid the Allied powers for victory? Why? Why did the United States prosper during World War 1? Do you think that prosperity will end or continue after the war is over? Why?
Teddy Roosevelt William Taft Woodrow Wilson
Treaty of Versailles, 1919 “Big Four” meet to discuss outcome of war France & Great Britain look to punish Germany; Italy is indifferent President Wilson proposes “14 Points”, looks to rebuild Europe
There should be an end to all secret diplomacy amongst countries. Freedom of the seas in peace and war The reduction of trade barriers among nations The general reduction of armaments The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers The evacuation of Russian territory and a welcome for its government to the society of nations The restoration of Belgium
The evacuation of all French territory, including Alsace- Lorraine The readjustment of Italian boundaries along clearly recognizable lines of nationality Independence for various national groups in Austria-Hungary The restoration of the Balkan nations and free access to the sea for Serbia Protection for minorities in Turkey and the free passage of the ships of all nations through the Dardanelles Independence for Poland, including access to the sea A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike
France & Britain reject Wilson’s plan, only give him League of Nations Germany given sole blame, loses all colonies, military limited, territory lost, must pay war debt ($33 Billion) Separate treaties signed w/ other Central powers League of Nations essentially a “World Parliament” not to be confused of the United Nations. Russia left out of treaty process; fuels anger towards West Heavy burden on Germany will lead to rise of Nazi party & WWII Wilson brings treaty home, but Congress refuses to accept it Henry Cabot Lodge leads conservatives against treaty US does not join League of Nations; begins policy of Isolationism
Europe is ruined 9 million dead 22 million casualties Economies of several nations destroyed Estimated cost of war $350 Billion New countries created (Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia)
U.S became world's economic & political leader (notwithstanding its isolationism) Russian Revolution ultimately instituted communism (tremendous impact until 1992) USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
The Big Four leaders at Versailles (Britain, France, Italy, US)
Warren G Harding vs. James M. Cox Harding will run on a platform Ambiguous on the issue of the League of Nations. Harding spoke of returning America to "normalcy“
Result: Harding d. Cox First time full-suffrage for women in national election. Results displayed public desire for change from idealism, moral overstrain, and self-sacrifice. Isolationists turned results into a death sentence for the League of Nations. Later, the U.S. would bear part of the blame for WWII as it undercut the League of Nations by refusing to join it. Security Treaty with France also rejected by the Senate. France then undertook to build a powerful military in the face of increased German power and lack of U.S. support.
Germany, fearing France’s buildup, embarked on an even more vigorous rearmament program under Hitler. U.S. thus spurred an opportunity to emerge as a world leader and to shape world events for the benefit of peace. Two main causes for the failure of peace: The Great Depression (precipitating cause) War psychosis" (dubbed by Wilson and others): hatreds raised up in Europe by a war that lasted so long that Europe’s leaders lost all perspective