Presentation on theme: "World War I and Its Aftermath Causes of the War Great War Begins U.S. Enters the War."— Presentation transcript:
World War I and Its Aftermath Causes of the War Great War Begins U.S. Enters the War
SSUSH15: The student will analyze the origins & impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.
M.A.I.N. Causes of World War I 1. Militarism: Germany, Great Britain, Russia, France and Austria-Hungary all were building up their armies and preparing for war which made war more likely to occur. 2. Alliances: European countries created complicated system of alliances designed to help each other out. It bound countries together should war break out. 3. Imperialism: Scramble to gain colonies by all the major European powers. Sharpened rivalries among the nations. 4. Nationalism: Pride in one’s country and desire to see it be the greatest power bolstered support for war. o Ethnic diversity in Austria-Hungary. Ethnic groups wanted to be their own nations.
Alliances: these were made before WWI began Triple Entente France Russia Great Britain Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary Germany Italy
Spark of the War… Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 by a Serbian nationalist—Gavrilo Princip Member of the Black Hand Party Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Germany: ally of Austria-Hungary; declared war on Russia In one week Britain & France had declared war on Germany
Alliance System Central Powers 1. Germany 2. Austria-Hungary 3. Ottoman Empire 4. Bulgaria Allied Powers 1. France 2. Russia 3. Italy: turned on their TA partners & joined the Allies in Great Britain 5. Serbia 6. United States
Germany’s Military Strategy Goal: massive attack against France to defeat the country quickly, this would leave GB alone on an island Schlieffen Plan German forces would avoid the French- German border by invading France through Belgium First Battle of the Marne Germans invaded France, Allies pushed back to the Marne River; Allies pushed the Germans back & both sides started digging in by building trenches
War Becomes a Stalemate 1915: both sides occupied trenches running for hundreds of miles from the North Sea to Switzerland Land separating the 2 sides: No Man’s Land; filled with barbed wire & land mines New type of fighting: trench warfare Massive artillery barrages, soldiers would go over the top & charge across No Man’s Land War becomes a stalemate; no side was gaining any ground
Battle of Verdun Took place in Verdun, France On the Western Front Longest battle of the war Lasted 9 months Over 1 million casualties on each side; half of those were deaths Both sides tried to wear the other side; war turned into a war of attrition
The American Response President Wilson proclaimed American neutrality at the beginning of the war Tension increased between the US & Germany over unrestricted submarine warfare by German U-Boats (Submarines)- attacking ships thought to carry weapons for the Allied Powers Germany attacked the Lusitania (British Passenger ship); 128 Americans killed; Americans were outraged Germans warned they would sink anything in the Atlantic Ocean U.S. was told the Germans would stop using submarine warfare but it did not
Then America Declares War Zimmerman Note– sent by Arthur Zimmerman of Germany to the Mexican government; urged Mexico to attack the U.S. (Mexico could then gain back lands taken by the U.S.); Arizona, New Mexico, & Texas Finally on April 6, 1917 the U.S. declares war on Germany Woodrow Wilson: “It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace.”
America Prepares Congress initially sent $3 billion in loans to the Allies, naval support, arms, supplies and 14,500 troops. American soldiers called “doughboys”- inexperienced, but fresh troops May 1917—Congress passes the Selective Service Act (the draft) authorizing young men to enlist in military service. By November 1917, 24 million men had enlisted and the U.S. had picked 3 million draftees to serve in the war. Convoy System—By April 1917, German U-Boats had sunk 430 Allied ships. Starting in May, all ships carrying soldiers traveled in a convoy which was a group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats and other armed naval vessels. No other soldiers were killed while crossing the Atlantic