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Goal 8.  Rivalries created by Imperialism (need to make country great)  Industrialization  Nationalism (intense loyalty to your country)  Military.

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Presentation on theme: "Goal 8.  Rivalries created by Imperialism (need to make country great)  Industrialization  Nationalism (intense loyalty to your country)  Military."— Presentation transcript:

1 Goal 8

2  Rivalries created by Imperialism (need to make country great)  Industrialization  Nationalism (intense loyalty to your country)  Military Buildup  Treaties & Alliances


4  Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary visits Sarajevo, Bosnia on June 28 th, 1914  Archduke is heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; he’s in Bosnia to give them political representation  He’s assassinated by Serbian nationalists (Black Hand)  Austria-Hungary holds Serbia responsible; Germany supports declaration of war

5  Alliance System: each nation had treaties with other nations  Conflict with Serbia & Austria-Hungary causes alliances to trigger; most of Europe to brought into the conflict  Allied Powers  France, Russia, Great Britain, Serbia  Central Powers  Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria

6 Alliances of World War I

7  Most Europeans excited about war; thought it would end by Christmas 1914  War quickly turns into a stalemate  Western front w/ trench warfare (France)  Eastern front (Russia)  Southern front (Greece & Ottoman Empire)  War becomes war of attrition (who can wear out the other side)  New technology leads to massive casualty totals  Machine gun  Poisonous gas  Tanks  Airplanes  Artillery guns & shells  No major shifts of power between 1914-1917



10  US decides to stay neutral-Isolationism  Most Americans don’t see conflict as “our problem”  President Wilson’s foreign policy towards Europe  US had no enemies; no need to pick a side  US focus needed to be on Western Hemisphere  Mexico, Latin American countries, etc.  Wilson will run for re-election in 1916, vowing to keep US out of war  Some Americans want us to enter the war  Propaganda used against Germans/Central Powers

11  For over a century, U.S. had proud tradition of isolationism from Europe.  Wilson needed to instill burning idealism to inspire Americans to fight  Twin goals:  "Make the world safe for democracy" as a crusade  ”A war to end war“  U.S. did not fight for profit or territorial conquest.  U.S. wanted to shape an international order in which democracy could flourish without fear of autocracy and militarism.  Wilson genuine in his belief in democratic ideals and U.S. as a world model.  Result: Persuaded Americans to embark on the crusade

12  Britain blockades Europe to keep Germans from getting supplies; Germans counter w/ “U- Boats”  Unrestricted Sub Warfare – attack all ships going to Great Britain or France  Lusitania – passenger ship sank in 1915 (132 Americans killed)  Germany signs “Sussex Pledge” promising to stop Unrestricted Sub Warfare

13  Zimmerman Note – letter from Germany to Mexico trying to get them to attack US  Russian Revolution – Russia withdraws from war, ending two-front war (forced to give up Poland to Germany)  Germans break Sussex Pledge, continue sub warfare  Wilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany  “make the world safe for democracy”  Jeanette Rankin – 1 st female in Congress – votes “no”



16  US Military not ready to fight (only 200,000 enlisted)  Selective Service Act – May 1917  Had to register w/ government for draft  24 million register, 3 million drafted  American Expeditionary Force (AEF) led by General John J. Pershing  Training period of 8 months  Shipping becomes necessity  Shipyard employees given draft exemption  Convoy system used to protect merchant ships  Black soldiers  400,000 sign up (army)  Most given non-combat duties (ie – cooks)  369 th Infantry saw most frontline duty during war (most decorated)  Women volunteer as secretaries & nurses


18 American Convoy System used during WWI

19  Women took over for men in factories  War Industries Board (WIB) - created to regulate economy & war effort  Led by Bernard Baruch  Food Administration - created to produce & conserve food  Led by Herbert Hoover  Committee on Public Information – created propaganda to get support for the war  Led by George Creel

20  Anti-immigrant hysteria, especially against Germans  Espionage & Sedition Acts  Limits free speech  Over 2000 people prosecuted  Unions & socialists targeted & persecuted  Eugene V. Debs jailed for 10 years  Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) accused of “sabotage” b/c they urged workers to strike  Leads to Schenck v. US, 1919  Espionage & Sedition Acts declared constitutional  “Clear and Present Danger”

21  US troops give new life to Allies, but did minimal fighting (compared to others)  Nicknamed “doughboys”  Central powers weaken  Germany tries 1 last attack in Summer of 1918 (unsuccessful)  Central powers begin to crumble  Austria-Hungary surrenders in early Nov.  German Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates the throne on Nov. 9 th  Germans call for an armistice on Nov. 11 th, 1918 (11- 11 @ 11am)

22  Treaty of Versailles, 1919  “Big Four” meet to discuss outcome of war  France & Great Britain look to punish Germany; Italy is indifferent  President Wilson proposes “14 Points”, looks to rebuild Europe

23  There should be an end to all secret diplomacy amongst countries.  Freedom of the seas in peace and war  The reduction of trade barriers among nations  The general reduction of armaments  The adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of the inhabitants as well as of the colonial powers  The evacuation of Russian territory and a welcome for its government to the society of nations  The restoration of Belgium

24  The evacuation of all French territory, including Alsace- Lorraine  The readjustment of Italian boundaries along clearly recognizable lines of nationality  Independence for various national groups in Austria-Hungary  The restoration of the Balkan nations and free access to the sea for Serbia  Protection for minorities in Turkey and the free passage of the ships of all nations through the Dardanelles  Independence for Poland, including access to the sea  A league of nations to protect "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike

25  France & Britain reject Wilson’s plan, only give him League of Nations  Germany given sole blame, loses all colonies, military limited, territory lost, must pay war debt ($33 Billion)  Separate treaties signed w/ other Central powers  League of Nations essentially a “World Parliament” not to be confused of the United Nations.  Russia left out of treaty process; fuels anger towards West  Heavy burden on Germany will lead to rise of Nazi party & WWII  Wilson brings treaty home, but Congress refuses to accept it  Henry Cabot Lodge leads conservatives against treaty  US does not join League of Nations; begins policy of Isolationism

26  Europe is ruined  9 million dead  22 million casualties  Economies of several nations destroyed  Estimated cost of war $350 Billion  New countries created (Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia)

27  U.S became world's economic & political leader (notwithstanding its isolationism)  Russian Revolution ultimately instituted communism (tremendous impact until 1992)  USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

28 The Big Four leaders at Versailles (Britain, France, Italy, US)



31  Warren G Harding vs. James M. Cox  Harding will run on a platform  Ambiguous on the issue of the League of Nations.  Harding spoke of returning America to "normalcy“

32 Result:  Harding d. Cox  First time full-suffrage for women in national election.  Results displayed public desire for change from idealism, moral overstrain, and self-sacrifice.  Isolationists turned results into a death sentence for the League of Nations.  Later, the U.S. would bear part of the blame for WWII as it undercut the League of Nations by refusing to join it.  Security Treaty with France also rejected by the Senate.  France then undertook to build a powerful military in the face of increased German power and lack of U.S. support.

33  Germany, fearing France’s buildup, embarked on an even more vigorous rearmament program under Hitler.  U.S. thus spurred an opportunity to emerge as a world leader and to shape world events for the benefit of peace. Two main causes for the failure of peace:  The Great Depression (precipitating cause)  War psychosis" (dubbed by Wilson and others): hatreds raised up in Europe by a war that lasted so long that Europe’s leaders lost all perspective

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