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World War I. Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire Allied Powers: France, Great Britain, Russia (to 1917)

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Presentation on theme: "World War I. Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire Allied Powers: France, Great Britain, Russia (to 1917)"— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I

2 Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire Allied Powers: France, Great Britain, Russia (to 1917)

3 4 Major Causes of War Imperialism Entangling Alliances Militarism Nationalism –fervent patriotism –independence movements

4 The Spark Emperor Franz-Joseph Archduke Franz-Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) assassination by Serbian nationalists of the BLACK HAND

5 Trench Warfare Industrial War –first military use telephone automobile airplane

6 Stalemate b By 1915, 4,000,000 soldiers in the trenches

7 How did the United States get involved in Europe’s war?

8 President Wilson declares NEUTRALITY

9 Economic Boon for the US. Munitions, food, soldier’s supplies, money Increase in Trade –Britain 257% –France393% –Italy363% –Germany.08%

10 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare to combat British naval blockade

11 Lusitania Lusitania -- British passenger liner

12 Struck by a German torpedo –1200 of 2,000 die 128 Americans –secretly carrying war materials

13 U.S. Response Wilson continues policy of neutrality Germany apologizes –after further attacks, agrees to refrain from no-warning attacks Wilson is re-elected on the slogan: “He kept us out of war.” (600,000 votes-1916)

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15 Zimmerman Telegraph German Foreign Secretary Arthur Von Zimmerman to German ambassador to Mexico –ask Mexico to join Central powers –help them regain land –renew unrestricted submarine warfare

16 and German U-boats Sink 3 American Ships Wilson asks Congress for Declaration of War – April 2, 1917 –“neutrality is no longer feasible…” –“The world must be made safe for democracy” –“we shall fight for the [idea] which we have always carried close to our hearts— democracy”

17 Opposition to the War Many women –Jeanette Rankin (1 st woman rep. in Congress) “You can no more win a war than you can win an earthquake.” Quakers Socialists Opponents of big business –“command of gold” –profiteering

18 Mobilization The Draft – 9 million registered –3 million –Volunteers – 2 million Increased production –fuel, ships, weapons, food –governing boards Propaganda Campaigns –CPI (Committee on Public Information) George Creed –“4-Minute Men”

19 The Suppression of Dissent Espionage Act 1917 Sedition Act 1918 –2,000 prosecutions including Eugene Debs (10 years) Public persecution of Germans

20 Western Front AEF American Expeditionary Force –General John “Black Jack” Pershing Major American engagements –Chateau Thierry –Meuse-Argonne

21 End of the War Kaiser abdicates Nov. 9 Armistice signed Nov. 11 a.m.

22 10 million soldiers killed/20 million wounded 10 million civilian deaths 110,000 American deaths Estimated cost: $185 billion


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