Presentation on theme: "CH 23: War and Revolution Our Lady of Lourdes Social Studies Department I."— Presentation transcript:
CH 23: War and Revolution Our Lady of Lourdes Social Studies Department I
Causes of WWI: MAIN Militarism Aggressive build up of weapons, armies, navies (arms race) Resulted from increased imperialism and nationalism Alliances An attack on one = attack on all Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Triple Entente – France, Great Britain, Russia
Imperialism Competition and conflict rises between nations seeking colonies and trade in Africa and Asia Nationalism Was both a uniting force and a divisive one Germany v France Pan-Slavism - Russia tries to unite all eastern Europe
The Balkan “Powder Keg” Balkan Peninsula Nationalism weakens the Ottoman Empire Serbia breaks away; wants to join with Bosnia and Herzegovina; Austria-Hungary unhappy Tensions high! GUNPOWDER
Armenian Massacres Ottoman Empire Nationalistic feelings caused Muslim Turks to distrust Christian Armenian, believing they supported Russia against the Ottoman Empire When Armenians protested oppressive Ottoman policies, the Turks unleashed a massacre on the Armenians Over the course of twenty five years, more than a million people were massacred, the worst of it occurring during World War I.
The Outbreak of War “The Spark” – 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist of the group called the Black Hand
Austrians invade Serbia Russia supports Serbia Germany supports Austria-Hungary Britain and France enter in their alliance (w/Russia) Great Britain declared war on Germany, which was the start of World War I.
Aspects of War Trench Warfare A form of combat where armies fight each other from opposing fortified positions, usually consisting of long, dugout holes or trenches. Technology Machine gun Tank Airplane Submarine Poison gas
Powers during the War Central Powers Germany Austria Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Allied Powers Great Britain France Russia Italy US ( )
Battles to Remember Verdun Begun by the Germans Battle lasted six months (February-August 1916) Casualties for both sides were between 330, ,000 men!! End result was no gain for Germans Both battles started by the Germans! Somme July-October 1916 Week-long artillery bombardment failed to weaken Germans British lost 60,000 men on first day!!! Battle cost the Germans 500,000 the French 200,000, & the British 400,000 men Battle resulted in no gains for either side First use of tanks in battle
Impact of Total War Total War – complete mobilization of resources and people Governments: Drafted young men Rationed food supplies and materials Controlled imports and exports Used war propaganda Women took jobs as: Farm laborers Factory workers
Major Turning Points US Enters the War April 1917 Was neutral, joined on Allied side after Americans were killed by German submarines Helped Allies win the war Russian Withdrawal 1918, revolution causes withdrawal
Armistice German people stop supporting the war Emperor William II leaves country Social Democrats take control of Germany November 11, 1918 an armistice is signed
Paris Peace Conference Germany not invited Wilson (US) - 14 points, reduce militaries, self determination, LON (League of Nations) David Lloyd George (GB) – Make Germany Pay Georges Clemenceau (France) - Security and revenge Woodrow Wilson David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau
The “Big Four” From left to right: David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson of The United States.
New Countries Germany is now a Republic Ottoman Empire broken up Austria-Hungary is no more Now Austria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary Ethnic rivalries weaken Eastern Europe 80 years! Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Poland formed