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The Great War World War I. Causes of WWI Background causes – Imperialism – Rivalries developed as nations competed for colonies – Militarism – Nations.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War World War I. Causes of WWI Background causes – Imperialism – Rivalries developed as nations competed for colonies – Militarism – Nations."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great War World War I

2 Causes of WWI Background causes – Imperialism – Rivalries developed as nations competed for colonies – Militarism – Nations built their armed forces and stockpiled weapons in preparation for war – Nationalism – Strong feelings of pride about one’s nation – Alliances System of alliances developed for mutual defense purposes The Allies versus the Central Powers The Allies: Britain, France and Russia (later the United States and Italy) Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary. (later the Ottoman Empire)

3 Immediate Causes Immediate cause – The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand – Ferdinand was heir to the Austrian throne – Assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian nationalist

4 Alliances take effect – Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia – Russia MOBILIZED her military to protect Serbia – Germany declared war on Russia to protect Austria-Hungary – France declared war on Germany – Germany went through neutral Belgium to get to France – Great Britain, Belgium’s protector, jumped into the war

5 First few years Equal in size and force, the two sides reached a STALEMATE Both sides dug in, and began TRENCH WARFARE

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7 America In World War I America’s initial response – America declared itself neutral – America attempted to act as a peacemaker in the European conflict Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – German U-BOATS (submarines) sank the British Ocean Liner Lusitania, killing 128 American passengers – America protested and Germany agreed not to sink ships without warning – German U-boats sank French Ocean Liner Sussex – American threatened to cut off diplomatic ties with Germany. – Germany issued SUSSEX PLEDGE promising to warn ships before attacking – Within a year, Germany ignored Sussex Pledge and resumed UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE

8 America Moves Toward War Zimmerman Note – British intelligence intercepted a German telegram – Arthur Zimmerman, Germany’s foreign minister, tried to make a secret deal (alliance) with Mexico – If America entered the war, and Mexico attacked the U.S. from the south, Germany would give them back the land they had lost in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. – Americans outraged Russian Revolution – The Bolsheviks overthrew Tsar Nicolas II in March, 1917 – Russia pulled out of World War I – The U.S. filled the void left by Russia by declaring war April 6, 1917.

9 America Prepares for War SELECTIVE SERVICE – Authorized the “draft” for young men AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE – America developed its troops force – John “Blackjack” Pershing CONVOYS – Destroyers guarded unarmed ships carrying troops to Europe Corporal Alvin York – Earned Congressional Medal of Honor ARMISTICE – The Allies finally achieved this “cease fire”

10 The War at Home Financing the War – The U.S. sold LIBERTY BONDS to raise money for the War effort VICTORY GARDENS – conserve food Managing the Economy – The government regulated the production of war goods – Price Controls – Limited the price charged for food – Rationing – Regulated the consumption of food and fuel – Daylight Savings – Changed the clock; increased daylight hours and thus conserved fuel – CPI – Committee of Public Information (Propaganda)

11 Enforcing Loyalty – ESPIONAGE ACT – Illegal to interfere with the draft – SEDITION ACT – Repression of free speech. Illegal to speak ill of the U.S., The Constitution or the Armed Forces. CITIZENS COULD NOT ENCOURAGE REBELLION. – Immigration Restrictions – Limited the number of immigrants coming into America

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13 After the War Treaty of Versailles – Ended the war – Germany blamed and forced to pay REPARATIONS… payment for economic injury suffered during the war Wilson’s 14 Points – Wilson’s plan for peace – Encouraged “Peace without victory” – Suggested all nations join a “LEAGUE OF NATIONS”

14 The League of Nations – A group of nations for mutual defense – Congress did not want to join the League… it could interfere with their right to declare war – Because of the League, the U.S. FAILED TO RATIFY THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES ISOLATIONISM – U.S. began a policy of staying out of European affairs


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