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The Great War World War I.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great War World War I."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great War World War I

2 Causes of WWI Background causes
Imperialism – Rivalries developed as nations competed for colonies Militarism – Nations built their armed forces and stockpiled weapons in preparation for war Nationalism – Strong feelings of pride about one’s nation Alliances System of alliances developed for mutual defense purposes The Allies versus the Central Powers The Allies: Britain, France and Russia (later the United States and Italy) Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary. (later the Ottoman Empire)

3 Immediate Causes Immediate cause
The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand Ferdinand was heir to the Austrian throne Assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian nationalist

4 Alliances take effect Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
Russia MOBILIZED her military to protect Serbia Germany declared war on Russia to protect Austria-Hungary France declared war on Germany Germany went through neutral Belgium to get to France Great Britain, Belgium’s protector, jumped into the war

5 First few years Equal in size and force, the two sides reached a STALEMATE Both sides dug in, and began TRENCH WARFARE


7 America In World War I Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
German U-BOATS (submarines) sank the British Ocean Liner Lusitania, killing 128 American passengers America protested and Germany agreed not to sink ships without warning German U-boats sank French Ocean Liner Sussex American threatened to cut off diplomatic ties with Germany. Germany issued SUSSEX PLEDGE promising to warn ships before attacking Within a year, Germany ignored Sussex Pledge and resumed Unrestricted Submarine Warfare America’s initial response America declared itself neutral America attempted to act as a peacemaker in the European conflict

8 America Moves Toward War
Zimmerman Note British intelligence intercepted a German telegram Arthur Zimmerman, Germany’s foreign minister, tried to make a secret deal (alliance) with Mexico If America entered the war, and Mexico attacked the U.S. from the south, Germany would give them back the land they had lost in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Americans outraged Russian Revolution The Bolsheviks overthrew Tsar Nicolas II in March, 1917 Russia pulled out of World War I The U.S. filled the void left by Russia by declaring war April 6, 1917.

9 America Prepares for War
Selective Service – Authorized the “draft” for young men American Expeditionary Force – America developed its troops force John “Blackjack” Pershing Convoys – Destroyers guarded unarmed ships carrying troops to Europe Corporal Alvin York – Earned Congressional Medal of Honor Armistice – The Allies finally achieved this “cease fire”

10 The War at Home Financing the War – The U.S. sold Liberty Bonds to raise money for the War effort VICTORY GARDENS – conserve food Managing the Economy The government regulated the production of war goods Price Controls – Limited the price charged for food Rationing – Regulated the consumption of food and fuel Daylight Savings – Changed the clock; increased daylight hours and thus conserved fuel CPI – Committee of Public Information (Propaganda)

11 Enforcing Loyalty Espionage Act – Illegal to interfere with the draft
Sedition Act – Repression of free speech. Illegal to speak ill of the U.S., The Constitution or the Armed Forces. CITIZENS Could not encourage rebellion. Immigration Restrictions – Limited the number of immigrants coming into America


13 After the War Treaty of Versailles Wilson’s 14 Points Ended the war
Germany blamed and forced to pay REPARATIONS… payment for economic injury suffered during the war Wilson’s 14 Points Wilson’s plan for peace Encouraged “Peace without victory” Suggested all nations join a “League of Nations”

14 Isolationism – U.S. began a policy of staying out of European affairs
The League of Nations A group of nations for mutual defense Congress did not want to join the League… it could interfere with their right to declare war Because of the League, the U.S. FAILED TO RATIFY THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

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