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World War I 9 th Grade Social Studies Spring 2014 Unit 10.

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1 World War I 9 th Grade Social Studies Spring 2014 Unit 10

2 THE BIG PICTURE A variety of powerful forces – including growing nationalism, a tangle of alliances, and decades of rivalry and competition – created conditions that transformed a single assassination into a world wide war. New inventions changed the science and technology of modern warfare, which became more deadly and destructive than ever before. Entire countries were mobilized for war, and the global conflicts left millions of soldiers and civilians dead and societies in ruins. After four years of fighting, an uneasy peace was reached.

3 WHY WE STUDY THIS UNIT? Much of the technology of modern warfare was introduced in WW I. World War I helped to ignite the Russian Revolution of The victors dictated a harsh peace settlement that set the stage for WW II.

4 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1.What were the forces that pushed Europe to the brink of war in 1914? 2.How did ethnic tensions in the Balkans spark a political assassination? 3.How was the WW I battlefield different than those of earlier wars?

5 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 4.How did WW I become a total war? 5.How did the Allies win WW I? 6.What issues made the peace process difficult?

6 UNIT OVERVIEW Last Unit: Imperialism Current Unit: WW I Next Unit: Russian Revolution

7 ODD DAY ACADEMIC 4/4: The Great War Begins Qs 4/8: Intro to War 4/8: Europe Map Activity 4/10: Causes of WW I 4/10: The Spark 4/10: Historian’s View

8 ODD DAY HONORS 4/4: The Great War Begins Qs 4/8: Intro to War 4/8: Europe Map Activity 4/10: Causes of WW I 4/10: The Spark 4/10: Historian’s View

9 EVEN DAY ACADEMIC 4/7: The Great War Begins Qs 4/9: Intro to War 4/9: Europe Map Activity 4/11: Causes of WW I 4/11: The Spark

10 EVEN DAY HONORS 4/7: The Great War Begins Qs 4/9: Intro to War 4/9: Europe Map Activity 4/11: Causes of WW I 4/11: The Spark

11 Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Black Hand Neutral Central Powers Allied Powers Western front THE GREAT WAR BEGINS TERMS

12 Trench warfare No man’s land War of Attrition Propaganda Battle of Verdun Battle of the Somme Gallipoli Campaign Genocide Stalemate A NEW KIND OF WAR TERMS

13 Total war Zimmerman note Armistice 14 points Treaty of Versailles Mandates Belfour Declaration President Wilson (U.S.) Clemenceau (Fr.) David Lloyd George (Br.) THE WAR ENDS TERMS

14 1. WHAT WERE THE FORCES THAT PUSHED EUROPE TO THE BRINK OF WAR IN 1914? The forces of _________________, ______________, and _________________ increased tensions and rivalries between the _______________ countries. As a result, _________________ were formed as a _________________ measure to maintain peace. _________________, ______________, and _________________ formed the Allies ________________, _______________, and the later the ___________________ formed the Central Powers.

15 1. WHAT WERE THE FORCES THAT PUSHED EUROPE TO THE BRINK OF WAR IN 1914? The forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism increased tensions and rivalries between the European countries. As a result, alliances were formed as a defensive measure to maintain peace. Britain, France, and Russia formed the Allies Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire formed the Central Powers.

16 2. HOW DID ETHNIC TENSIONS IN THE BALKANS SPARK A POLITICAL ASSASSINATION? The Slavic people in the Balkans wanted their own independent state. Franz Ferdinand planned to extend political rights to the Slavic people in Austria-Hungary, which would undermine their movement for independence. To prevent this from happening, the Black Hand assassinated the archduke. As a result, the alliances between the Great Powers were activated and declarations of war were made.

17 3. HOW WAS THE WW I BATTLEFIELD DIFFERENT THAN THOSE OF EARLIER WARS? Industrialization led to development of new weapons that caused greater destruction. Machine guns, heavy artillery, and poison gas led to many more casualties. As a result, trench warfare and war of attrition were used as defensive strategies. A stalemate occurred as neither side was able to gain an advantage.

18 4. HOW DID WW I BECOME A TOTAL WAR? Total war is the devotion of a nation’s entire resources to the war effort. Governments raise taxes and borrow money to cover the cost of war. Censorship and propaganda are used to control public opinion. Finally, a draft is used to build up the military and women helped on the home front.

19 5. HOW DID THE ALLIES WIN? On the battlefield, German soldiers had lost hope of a victory on the Western front. On the home front, civilian suffering led to a revolution that forced the kaiser to flee the country. The Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria all surrendered. The Americans entered the war and helped the Allies by providing fresh soldiers and supplies.

20 WHAT ISSUES MADE THE PEACE SETTLEMENT PROCESS DIFFICULT? U.S. President Wilson proposed the Fourteen Points and believed in a “peace without victory.” France’s Clemenceau was driven by revenge and wanted Germany to assume full blame and pay reparations. Britain’s George wanted to weaken Germany but still wanted it to be able to defend against Communist Russia.


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