Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 Social Structure"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Sociology4/15/2017CHAPTER 4 Social StructureSection 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureSection 2: Types of Social InteractionSection 3: Types of SocietiesSection 4: Groups Within SocietySection 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsChapter 4
2Objectives: Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Identify and describe the two major components of social structure.Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction.
3Major Components of Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureMajor Components of Social StructureStatus – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more rolesRole – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
4Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureRoles, Status, and Human InteractionPeople’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another.
5Objectives: Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Identify the most common types of social interaction.Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it.
6Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social InteractionExchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actionsCompetition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attainConflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person
7Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social Interaction(continued)Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of themAccommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
8Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt Section 2: Types of Social InteractionInteractions That Stabilize and DisruptCompetition and Conflict – disrupt social stabilityAccommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability
9Objectives: Section 3: Types of Societies Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today.Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems.
10Types of Societies Section 3: Types of Societies Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing foodIndustrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methodsPostindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services
11Roles of Individuals Section 3: Types of Societies Roles related to: LeadershipFamilyWork
12Objectives: Section 4: Groups Within Society Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups.Identify the purposes that groups fulfill.
13Features of Primary Groups Section 4: Groups Within SocietyFeatures of Primary GroupsInteract over a long period of time on a direct and personal basisEntire self of the individual is taken into accountRelationships are intimate and face-to-face
14Features of Secondary Groups Section 4: Groups Within SocietyFeatures of Secondary GroupsInteraction is impersonal and temporary in natureInvolve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s selfCasual and limited to personal involvement
15Purposes of Groups Section 4: Groups Within Society Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of othersDefine their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does notSet goals, assign tasks, and make decisionsControl their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long
16Objectives: Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Explain how bureaucracies are structured.Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies.
17Weber’s Model Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Division of LaborRanking of AuthorityEmployment based on formal qualificationsRules and regulationsSpecific lines of promotion and advancement
18Effectiveness of Bureaucracies Section 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsEffectiveness of BureaucraciesEfficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewardsProvides stabilityCan lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchiesIn some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably