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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Section 3: Types of Societies Section 4: Groups Within Society Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives:  Identify and describe the two major components of social structure.  Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Major Components of Social Structure  Status – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more roles  Role – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Objectives:  Identify the most common types of social interaction.  Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it. Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Common Types of Social Interaction  Exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions  Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain  Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Common Types of Social Interaction  Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them  Accommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Section 2: Types of Social Interaction (continued)

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt  Competition and Conflict – disrupt social stability  Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Objectives:  Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today.  Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems. Section 3: Types of Societies

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Types of Societies  Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food  Industrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methods  Postindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services Section 3: Types of Societies

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Roles of Individuals  Roles related to:  Leadership  Family  Work Section 3: Types of Societies

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Objectives:  Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups.  Identify the purposes that groups fulfill. Section 4: Groups Within Society

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Features of Primary Groups  Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis  Entire self of the individual is taken into account  Relationships are intimate and face-to-face Section 4: Groups Within Society

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Features of Secondary Groups  Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature  Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self  Casual and limited to personal involvement Section 4: Groups Within Society

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Purposes of Groups  Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others  Define their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does not  Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions  Control their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long Section 4: Groups Within Society

16 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 Objectives:  Explain how bureaucracies are structured.  Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies. Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

17 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 Weber’s Model  Division of Labor  Ranking of Authority  Employment based on formal qualifications  Rules and regulations  Specific lines of promotion and advancement Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

18 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 18 Effectiveness of Bureaucracies  Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards  Provides stability  Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies  In some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations


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