Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 Social Structure"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Sociology4/23/2017CHAPTER 4 Social StructureSection 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureSection 2: Types of Social InteractionSection 3: Types of SocietiesSection 4: Groups Within SocietySection 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsChapter 4
2Objectives: Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Identify and describe the two major components of social structure.Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction.
3Major Components of Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureMajor Components of Social StructureStatusRole
4Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureRoles, Status, and Human InteractionPeople’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another.
5Key termsSocial Structure – Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interactions.Status – Socially defined positions in a group in a society.Role – Behavior – the rights and obligations – expected of someone occupying a particular status.Ascribed Status – Status assigned according to standards that are beyond a person’s control. Age, sex, family history and race are examples.
6Key Terms(continued)Achieved Status – Status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability.Master Status – Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.Reciprocal Roles – Corresponding roles that define the patterns of interactions between related statuses.Role Expectations – Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role.
7Key Terms(continued)Role Performance – Actual behavior of a person performing a role.Role Set – different roles attached to a single status.Role Conflict- Situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectation of one role makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another role.Role Strain – Situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role.
8Examples of Conflict / Strain StatusExamples of RolesExamples of Conflict / Strainputting out fires, saving lives, wearing a uniformvoluntarily puts self in danger but has loved ones who need him or herfire fightermotherproviding food and shelter, nurturing family, disciplining childrenwork fatigue and long shifts make household tasks and interactions difficultP.T.A. presidentrunning meetings, recruiting new members, planning activitieshas trouble getting members to attend and follow through on promises
9Objectives: Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Identify the most common types of social interaction.Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it.
10Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social InteractionExchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actionsCompetition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attainConflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person
11Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social Interaction(continued)Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of themAccommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
12Social Institution – System of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society.Exchange Theory – Theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactionsReciprocity – Idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return.Georg Simmel – Sociologist – Identified four sources of conflict.A. War B. Disagreement with in groups C. Legal Disputes D. Clashes over Ideology
13Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt Section 2: Types of Social InteractionInteractions That Stabilize and DisruptCompetition and Conflict – disrupt social stabilityAccommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability
14Types of Social Interactions ExchangeCompetitionTrack Relay Team encompasses all 5 types of social interactionsTypes of Social InteractionsConflictCooperationAccommodation
15Objectives: Section 3: Types of Societies Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today.Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems.
16Section 3: Types of Societies Role Behavior often takes place in groups, and Sociologist often classify these groups/societies according to Subsistence StrategiesGroup – Set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity.Subsistence Strategies – Ways in which a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members.
17Types of Societies Section 3: Types of Societies Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing foodIndustrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methodsPostindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services
18Types of Societies - Preindustrial Type of societies in which food productions- carried out through the use of human and animal labor is the main economic activity Can be subdivided according to the level of technology and method of producing food
19Pre-Industrial Society Subdivision Hunting and Gathering Society Type of society characterized by the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals as the main form of subsistence
20Pre-Industrial Society Subdivision Pastoral Society Type of society characterized by a reliance on domesticated herd animals as the main form of subsistence.Division of Labor – Specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities.
21Pre-Industrial Society Subdivision Horticultural Society Type of society characterized by a reliance on vegetables grown in garden plants as the main form of subsistence.
22Pre-Industrial Society Subdivision Agricultural Society Type of society characterized by the use of draft animals and plows in the tilling of fields.Barter – Practice of exchanging one good for another.
23Industrial SocietiesType of Society in which the mechanized production of goods is the main economic activity.Urbanization – Concentration of the population in cities
24Post-Industrial Societies Type of society in which economic activities centers on the production of information and provision of services.
25Section 3: Types of Societies PreindustrialIndustrialPostindustrialTypes of Societieshunting and gathering; pastoral; horticultural; mechanical solidarityagriculturalmanufacturingurban; technology;organic solidarityinformation;provision of services
26Section 3: Types of Societies Contrasting SocietiesSociologists have long been interested in how the social structures of preindustrial and industrial societies differDurkheim – preindustrial societies are held together by:Mechanical Solidarity – Close-knit-social relationships common in Preindustrial societies that result when a small group of people share values and perform the same task.As a society becomes more complex, it gives way to:Organic Solidarity – Impersonal social relationships, common in Industrial societies that arise with increased job specialization.
27Section 3: Types of Societies Contrasting SocietiesGerman Sociologist – Ferdinand Tönnies– Defined two ideal types of societies based on the structure of social relationships & degree of shared valuesGemeinschaft – Societies in which most members know one another, relationships are close, and activities center on the family and the community.Gesellschaft – Societies in which social relationships are based upon need rather than on emotions, relationships are impersonal and temporary and individual goals are more important than group goals.
28Objectives: Section 4: Groups Within Society Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups.Identify the purposes that groups fulfill.
29Groups – Four Major Features: Section 4: Groups Within SocietyGroups – Four Major Features:Consist of two or more peopleInteraction among membersMembers have shared expectationsThe above features distinguish it from an ….Aggregate – Groups of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack organizationOR ….Social Category – Group of people who share a common trait or status.Members possess a common identity
30Groups – Distinguishing Characteristics: Section 4: Groups Within SocietyGroups – Distinguishing Characteristics:SizeDyad – Group with two members.Triad – Three- person group.Small Group – Group with few enough numbers that everyone is able to interact on a face to face basis (Sociologists have found that in groups over 15, people tend to sort themselves into smaller groups)
31Groups – Distinguishing Characteristics: Section 4: Groups Within SocietyGroups – Distinguishing Characteristics:TimeDailyWeeklyMonthlyAnnuallyYou get the idea
32Groups – Distinguishing Characteristics: Section 4: Groups Within SocietyGroups – Distinguishing Characteristics:OrganizationFormal Group – A group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined.Informal Group – A group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct.
33Types of Groups Features of Primary Groups Section 4: Groups Within SocietyTypes of Groups Features of Primary GroupsInteract over a long period of time on a direct and personal basisEntire self of the individual is taken into accountRelationships are intimate and face-to-face
34Types of Groups Features of Secondary Groups Section 4: Groups Within SocietyTypes of Groups Features of Secondary GroupsInteraction is impersonal and temporary in natureInvolve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s selfCasual and limited to personal involvement
35Section 4: Groups Within Society Reference Group – Any group with whom individuals identify and who’s attitudes and values they often adopt.In-Group – Group that an individual belongs to and identifies with.Out-Group – Any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with.E-Community – A community of people who interact through the internet or other electronic communications.Social Network – Web relationship that is formed by the sum total of an individual's interactions with other people.
36Functioning of Groups Section 4: Groups Within Society Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of othersDefine their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does notSet goals, assign tasks, and make decisionsControl their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long
38Types of Leaders Section 4: Groups Within Society Leaders – People who influence the attitudes and opinions of others.Instrumental Leaders – Leaders who are task- oriented.Expressive Leaders – Leaders who are emotion- oriented
39Roles of Individuals in Societies Section 3: Types of SocietiesSection 3: Types of SocietiesRoles of Individuals in SocietiesRoles related to:LeadershipFamilyWork
40Objectives: Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Explain how bureaucracies are structured.Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies.
41Bureaucracy (Characteristics identified by Max Weber) 1. Division of Labor2. Ranking of AuthorityBureaucracy(Characteristics identified byMax Weber)5. Specific lines of promotion and advancement3. Employment based on Formal qualification4. Rules and Regulations
42Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Formal Organization – Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals. (Examples: Schools, businesses, political and religious and youth organizations, and labor unions)Bureaucracy – Ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures.Rationality – The process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculations, measurement, and control.Voluntary Association – Non profit association formed to pursue some common interest.Iron Law of Oligarchy – Tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people.
43Weber’s Model Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Division of Labor- Work is divided among specialist in various positions. Each specialist is expected to perform specific duties.Ranking of Authority- There are clear cut lines of responsibility, and each individual is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level.Employment based on formal qualifications- Specific qualifications are required for each job. Individuals are hired based upon tests, education or previous experience. (In a bureaucracy, the job –not the job holder –is important. Therefore everybody is replaceable).
44Weber’s Model Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations (continued)Rules and regulations- There are objective rules, regulations, and routine procedures that identify the exact responsibilities and authority of each person on staff.Specific lines of promotion and advancement- It is assumed that employees expect a career with the organization. Thus there are clear-cut lines of promotion and advancement. Among the rewards for remaining with the organization are job security and seniority.
45Head of the Bureaucracy (CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.)Department Head/VPSubordinateDepartment Head/VP
46Effectiveness of Bureaucracies Section 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsEffectiveness of BureaucraciesEfficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewardsProvides stabilityCan lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchiesIn some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably
47Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 4 1. How can a person’s status differ from his or her role?2. How does role conflict affect groups and individuals? How can it be resolved?3. What are the five most common forms of interaction recognized by sociologists?4. Identify and describe the three broad categories of societies used by sociologists.5. How do the roles of group members differ between primary and secondary groups?6. What, according to Max Weber’s model, are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy?7. What weaknesses influence the effectiveness of bureaucracies?
48Essay Questions CHAPTER 4 Define bureaucracy, identify the five characteristics of a bureaucracy, and then explain which of the five characteristics is most related to “The Peter Principle”.2. Identify six types of societies and describe the subsistence strategy of each society.