Presentation on theme: "Social Structure Social Interaction, Types of Societies, Societal Groups and Formal Organizations."— Presentation transcript:
Social Structure Social Interaction, Types of Societies, Societal Groups and Formal Organizations
Social Structure Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction. Role: Behavior, rights, or obligation of a particular status. Status: Socially defined position in a group or society. ex: I am a Husband, Father, Son, Brother, Teacher, Coach, Friend, Nephew, Grandson, Neighbor etc)
Status Ascribed Status: Assigned beyond a person’s control. Ex: Teenager, Gender, Family Heritage, Race. Achieved Status: Based on achievements or efforts. Ex: Occupation, Husband/Wife, Graduate, Athlete. Master Status: one status that is dominate and defines you as a person… this status can be ascribed or achieved.
Role Reciprocal Roles: corresponding roles… one role only exists because of another. Ex: Husband/Wife, Employee/Employer, Friend/Friend.
Social Institution When group of roles/statuses are organized to satisfy one or more basic needs of society, it becomes an institution. Ex: Family, Economy, Education, Religion, Government.
Types of Social Interaction Exchange Competition Conflict Cooperation Accommodation
Social Exchange Whenever people interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions. This includes almost all daily interactions. Reciprocity: idea that if you do something for (or to) someone, that person owes you something in return. Exchange Theory: Believe that people are motivated by self-interest in the interactions with other people.
Social Competition Occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain. This is common in Western societies (Market Economies) Most sociologists view this as a positive means of motivation people to perform (as long as there are accepted rules of conduct).
Social Conflict The deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person. Has few rules of conduct (different from competition) Mostly a negative form of interaction, but does provide some positive responses such as unity and loyalty.
Social Cooperation Occurs when two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person. Social process that gets things done. This can coincide with competition (competing for spot on a team).
Social Accommodation A state of balance between cooperation and conflict. Example: A Hotel… the owner is letting you stay a night in exchange for money. If the owner was cooperating with you, you would stay for free… if the owner refused to let you stay, the owner would create conflict.
Types of Societies Preindustrial Society Industrial Society Postindustrial Society
Preindustrial Society Food production is the main economic activity. Hunting and Gathering Societies Pastoral Society: rely on the herding of domesticated animals (livestock) Horticultural Society: Small garden plots; slash and burn technology Agricultural Society: Plow fields; terrace farming; irrigation; use crops for barter
Industrial Society Emphasis on the production of manufactured goods More developed or developing nations Urbanization
Postindustrial Society Economy is based on information and services Most Western Nations including the United States High standard of living with an emphasis on education and careers
Groups within Society Aggregate: Not a group; a gathering of people in the same place, but lack organization or interest. Ex: Airplane Dyad: Smallest group; two people. Depend on each other for group to exist. Triad: Three person group Small Group: No more than 15; any more than that small groups within will form.
Organization of Groups Formal Group: Clearly defined structure, goals, and activities. Informal Group: No official structure or rules of conduct within the group.
Types of Groups Primary Group: Family; small group who interact over long period of time Secondary Group: Interaction is impersonal and temporary; Ex: workplace… primary relationships may develop among secondary group members. Reference Group: individuals identified with or attitudes are similar. Ex: group of friends or school clubs.
Types of Groups In-Group: group a person identifies and belongs to. Out-Group: group a person can not identify with and does not belong to. E-communities: social groups on the internet Social Network: includes both direct and indirect relationships; do not have clear boundaries
Structure of Formal Organizations Formal Organization: large, complex secondary group established to achieve specific goals. Bureaucracy: ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
Weber’s Model of Bureaucracies According to Max Weber, a bureaucracy must contain the following to be classified as such: Division of Labor: divided into specialist Ranking of Authority: lines of responsibility Employment based on formal qualification Rules and Regulations Specific Lines of Promotion and Advancement