Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Social Structure"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4 Social Structure Vocabulary and Key People
2 Ch. 4 Sections 1+2 Defined Terms : Social Structure – Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interactions.Status – Socially defined positions in a group in a society.Role – Behavior – the rights and obligations – expected of someone occupying a particular status.Ascribed Status – Status assigned according to standards that are beyond a person’s control. Age, sex, family history and race are examples.
3 Defined Terms : (Continued) Achieved Status – Status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability.Master Status – Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.Reciprocal Roles – Corresponding roles that define the patterns of interactions between related statuses.Role Expectations – Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role.
4 Defined Terms : (Continued) Role Performance – Actual behavior of a person performing a role.Role Set – different roles attached to a single status.Role Conflict- Situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectation of one role makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another role.Role Strain – Situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role.
5 Defined Terms : (Continued) Social Institution – System of statuses, roles, values, and norms that that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society.Exchange – Individuals, groups, or social interactions undertaken in an effort to receive a reward in return for actions.Reciprocity – Idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return.Exchange Theory – Theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactionsCompetition – Interactions that occurs when two or more persons or group oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain.
6 Defined Terms : (Continued) Conflict – Deliberate attempt to oppose, harms, controls by force, or resists the will of another person or persons.Cooperation – Occurs when two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person.Accommodation – State of balance between cooperation and conflict.Georg Simmel – Sociologist – Identified four sources of conflict.A. War B. Disagreement with in groups C. Legal Disputes D. Clashes over Ideology
7 Chapter 4 Section 3 Defined Terms : Group – Set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity.Subsistence Strategies – Ways in which a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members.Preindustrial Society - Type of societies in which food productions- carried out through the use of human and animal labor is the main economic activity.Hunting and Gathering Societies – Type of society characterized by the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals as the main form of subsistence.
8 Defined Terms : (Continued) Pastoral Society – Type of society characterized by a reliance on domesticated herd animals as the main form of subsistence.Division of Labor – Specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities.Horticultural Society – Type of society characterized by a reliance on vegetables grown in garden plants as the main form of subsistence.Agricultural Society – Type of society characterized by the use of draft animals and plows in the tilling of fields.
9 Defined Terms : (Continued) Barter – Practice of exchanging one good for another.Industrial Societies – Type of Society in which the mechanized production of goods is the main economic activity.Urbanization – Concentration of the population in cities.Postindustrial Society – Type of society in which economic activities centers on the production of information and provision of services.
10 Defined Terms : (Continued) Mechanical Solidarity – Close-knit-social relationships common in Preindustrial societies that result when a small group of people share values and perform the same task.Organic Solidarity – Impersonal social relationships, common in Industrial societies that arise with increased job specialization.Gemeinschaft – Societies in which most members know one another, relationships are close, and activities center on the family and the community.Gesellschaft – Societies in which social relationships are based upon need rather than on emotions, relationships are impersonal and temporary and individual goals are more important than group goals.
11 Chapter 4 Section 4 Defined Terms : Aggregate – Groups of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack organization or lasting patterns of interactions.Social Category – Group of people who share a common trait or status.Dyad – Group with two members.Triad – Three- person group.Small Group – Group with few enough numbers that everyone is able to interact on a face to face bases
12 Defined Terms : (Continued) Formal Group – A group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined.Informal Group – A group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct.Primary Group – Small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis.Secondary Group – Group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature.
13 Defined Terms : (Continued) Reference Group – Any group with whom individuals identify and who’s attitudes and values they often adopt.In-Group – Group that an individual belongs to and identifies with.Out-Group – Any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with.E-Community – A community of people who interact through the internet or other electronic communications.Social Network – Web relationships that is formed by the sum total of an individual's interactions with other people.
14 Defined Terms : (Continued) Leaders – People who influence the attitudes and opinions of others.Instrumental Leaders – Leaders who are task- oriented.Expressive Leaders – Leaders who are emotion- oriented
15 Chapter 4 section 5 Defined Terms Formal Organization – Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals. (Examples: Schools, businesses, political and religious and youth organizations, and labor unions)Bureaucracy – Ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures.Rationality – The process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculations, measurement, and control.Voluntary Association – Non profit association formed to pursue some common interest.Iron Law of Oligarchy – Tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people.