Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Social Structure Vocabulary and Key People."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Social Structure Vocabulary and Key People
Ch. 4 Sections 1+2 Defined Terms : Social Structure – Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interactions. Status – Socially defined positions in a group in a society. Role – Behavior – the rights and obligations – expected of someone occupying a particular status. Ascribed Status – Status assigned according to standards that are beyond a person’s control. Age, sex, family history and race are examples.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Achieved Status – Status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability. Master Status – Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity. Reciprocal Roles – Corresponding roles that define the patterns of interactions between related statuses. Role Expectations – Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Role Performance – Actual behavior of a person performing a role. Role Set – different roles attached to a single status. Role Conflict- Situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectation of one role makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another role. Role Strain – Situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Social Institution – System of statuses, roles, values, and norms that that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society. Exchange – Individuals, groups, or social interactions undertaken in an effort to receive a reward in return for actions. Reciprocity – Idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return. Exchange Theory – Theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions Competition – Interactions that occurs when two or more persons or group oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Conflict – Deliberate attempt to oppose, harms, controls by force, or resists the will of another person or persons. Cooperation – Occurs when two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person. Accommodation – State of balance between cooperation and conflict. Georg Simmel – Sociologist – Identified four sources of conflict. A. WarB. Disagreement with in groups C. Legal DisputesD. Clashes over Ideology
Chapter 4 Section 3 Defined Terms : Group – Set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity. Subsistence Strategies – Ways in which a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members. Preindustrial Society - Type of societies in which food productions- carried out through the use of human and animal labor is the main economic activity. Hunting and Gathering Societies – Type of society characterized by the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals as the main form of subsistence.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Pastoral Society – Type of society characterized by a reliance on domesticated herd animals as the main form of subsistence. Division of Labor – Specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities. Horticultural Society – Type of society characterized by a reliance on vegetables grown in garden plants as the main form of subsistence. Agricultural Society – Type of society characterized by the use of draft animals and plows in the tilling of fields.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Barter – Practice of exchanging one good for another. Industrial Societies – Type of Society in which the mechanized production of goods is the main economic activity. Urbanization – Concentration of the population in cities. Postindustrial Society – Type of society in which economic activities centers on the production of information and provision of services.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Mechanical Solidarity – Close-knit-social relationships common in Preindustrial societies that result when a small group of people share values and perform the same task. Organic Solidarity – Impersonal social relationships, common in Industrial societies that arise with increased job specialization. Gemeinschaft – Societies in which most members know one another, relationships are close, and activities center on the family and the community. Gesellschaft – Societies in which social relationships are based upon need rather than on emotions, relationships are impersonal and temporary and individual goals are more important than group goals.
Chapter 4 Section 4 Defined Terms : Aggregate – Groups of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack organization or lasting patterns of interactions. Social Category – Group of people who share a common trait or status. Dyad – Group with two members. Triad – Three- person group. Small Group – Group with few enough numbers that everyone is able to interact on a face to face bases
Defined Terms : (Continued) Formal Group – A group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined. Informal Group – A group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct. Primary Group – Small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis. Secondary Group – Group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Reference Group – Any group with whom individuals identify and who’s attitudes and values they often adopt. In-Group – Group that an individual belongs to and identifies with. Out-Group – Any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with. E-Community – A community of people who interact through the internet or other electronic communications. Social Network – Web relationships that is formed by the sum total of an individual's interactions with other people.
Defined Terms : (Continued) Leaders – People who influence the attitudes and opinions of others. Instrumental Leaders – Leaders who are task- oriented. Expressive Leaders – Leaders who are emotion- oriented
Chapter 4 section 5 Defined Terms Formal Organization – Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals. (Examples: Schools, businesses, political and religious and youth organizations, and labor unions) Bureaucracy – Ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures. Rationality – The process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculations, measurement, and control. Voluntary Association – Non profit association formed to pursue some common interest. Iron Law of Oligarchy – Tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people.