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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Section 3: Types of Societies Section 4: Groups Within Society Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives:  Identify and describe the two major components of social structure.  Analyze how these two components of social structure affect human interaction. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Major Components of Social Structure  Status  Role Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction  People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Key terms  Social Structure – Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interactions.  Status – Socially defined positions in a group in a society.  Role – Behavior – the rights and obligations – expected of someone occupying a particular status.  Ascribed Status – Status assigned according to standards that are beyond a person’s control. Age, sex, family history and race are examples.

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6  Achieved Status – Status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability.  Master Status – Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.  Reciprocal Roles – Corresponding roles that define the patterns of interactions between related statuses.  Role Expectations – Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role. Key Terms (continued)

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Key Terms  Role Performance – Actual behavior of a person performing a role.  Role Set – different roles attached to a single status.  Role Conflict- Situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectation of one role makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another role.  Role Strain – Situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role. (continued)

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Status Examples of Roles Examples of Conflict / Strain fire fighter mother P.T.A. president putting out fires, saving lives, wearing a uniform voluntarily puts self in danger but has loved ones who need him or her work fatigue and long shifts make household tasks and interactions difficult providing food and shelter, nurturing family, disciplining children running meetings, recruiting new members, planning activities has trouble getting members to attend and follow through on promises

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Objectives:  Identify the most common types of social interaction.  Distinguish between types of interactions that stabilize social structure and those that can disrupt it. Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Common Types of Social Interaction  Exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions  Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain  Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Common Types of Social Interaction  Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them  Accommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Section 2: Types of Social Interaction (continued)

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12  Social Institution – System of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society.  Exchange Theory – Theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions  Reciprocity – Idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return.  Georg Simmel – Sociologist – Identified four sources of conflict.  A. War B. Disagreement with in groups C. Legal DisputesD. Clashes over Ideology

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt  Competition and Conflict – disrupt social stability  Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Objectives:  Identify and describe the types of societies that exist in the world today.  Explain the roles individuals play in these models of group systems. Section 3: Types of Societies

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Types of Societies  Preindustrial – food production is the main economic activity and can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food  Industrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methods  Postindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services Section 3: Types of Societies

16 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 Roles of Individuals  Roles related to:  Leadership  Family  Work Section 3: Types of Societies

17 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 Preindustrial Industrial Postindustrial Types of Societies hunting and gathering; pastoral; horticultural; mechanical solidarity manufacturing agricultural urban; technology; organic solidarity information; provision of services Section 3: Types of Societies

18 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 18 Group – Set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity. Preindustrial Society - Type of societies in which food productions- carried out through the use of human and animal labor is the main economic activity. Subsistence Strategies – Ways in which a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members. Hunting and Gathering Societies – Type of society characterized by the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals as the main form of subsistence. Section 3: Types of Societies

19 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 19 Pastoral Society – Type of society characterized by a reliance on domesticated herd animals as the main form of subsistence. Horticultural Society – Type of society characterized by a reliance on vegetables grown in garden plants as the main form of subsistence. Agricultural Society – Type of society characterized by the use of draft animals and plows in the tilling of fields. Industrial Societies – Type of Society in which the mechanized production of goods is the main economic activity. Section 3: Types of Societies

20 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 20 Postindustrial Society – Type of society in which economic activities centers on the production of information and provision of services. Division of Labor – Specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities. Barter – Practice of exchanging one good for another. Urbanization – Concentration of the population in cities. Section 3: Types of Societies

21 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 21 Mechanical Solidarity – Close-knit-social relationships common in Preindustrial societies that result when a small group of people share values and perform the same task. (San, Arapesh) Organic Solidarity – Impersonal social relationships, common in Industrial societies that arise with increased job specialization. Gemeinschaft – Societies in which most members know one another, relationships are close, and activities center on the family and the community. Gesellschaft – Societies in which social relationships are based upon need rather than on emotions, relationships are impersonal and temporary and individual goals are more important than group goals. Section 3: Types of Societies

22 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 22 Objectives:  Summarize the major features of primary and secondary groups.  Identify the purposes that groups fulfill. Section 4: Groups Within Society

23 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 23 Features of Primary Groups  Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis  Entire self of the individual is taken into account  Relationships are intimate and face-to-face Section 4: Groups Within Society

24 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 24 Features of Secondary Groups  Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature  Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self  Casual and limited to personal involvement Section 4: Groups Within Society

25 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 25 define boundaries set goalsmake decisionscontrol members’ behavior assign tasksselect leaders GROUP FUNCTIONS

26 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 26 Purposes of Groups  Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others  Define their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does not  Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions  Control their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long Section 4: Groups Within Society

27 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 27  Aggregate – Groups of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack organization or lasting patterns of interactions.  Social Category – Group of people who share a common trait or status.  Dyad – Group with two members.  Triad – Three- person group.  Small Group – Group with few enough numbers that everyone is able to interact on a face to face basis Section 4: Groups Within Society

28 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 28  Formal Group – A group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined.  Informal Group – A group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct.  Primary Group – Small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis.  Secondary Group – Group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature. Section 4: Groups Within Society

29 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 29  Reference Group – Any group with whom individuals identify and who’s attitudes and values they often adopt.  In-Group – Group that an individual belongs to and identifies with.  Out-Group – Any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with.  E-Community – A community of people who interact through the internet or other electronic communications.  Social Network – Web relationship that is formed by the sum total of an individual's interactions with other people. Section 4: Groups Within Society

30 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 30  Leaders – People who influence the attitudes and opinions of others.  Instrumental Leaders – Leaders who are task- oriented.  Expressive Leaders – Leaders who are emotion- oriented Section 4: Groups Within Society

31 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 31 Objectives:  Explain how bureaucracies are structured.  Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies. Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

32 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Division of Labor 4. Rules and Regulations 3. Employment based on Formal qualification 5. Specific lines of promotion and advancement 2. Ranking of Authority Bureaucracy (Characteristics identified by Max Weber)

33 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 33  Formal Organization – Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals. (  Formal Organization – Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals. (Examples: Schools, businesses, political and religious and youth organizations, and labor unions)  Bureaucracy – Ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures.  Rationality – The process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculations, measurement, and control.  Voluntary Association – Non profit association formed to pursue some common interest.  Iron Law of Oligarchy – Tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people. Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

34 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 34 Weber’s Model  Division of Labor- Work is divided among specialist in various positions. Each specialist is expected to perform specific duties.  Ranking of Authority- There are clear cut lines of responsibility, and each individual is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level.  Employment based on formal qualifications- Specific qualifications are required for each job. Individuals are hired based upon tests, education or previous experience. (In a bureaucracy, the job –not the job holder –is important. Therefore everybody is replaceable). Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

35 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 35 Weber’s Model  Rules and regulations- There are objective rules, regulations, and routine procedures that identify the exact responsibilities and authority of each person on staff.  Specific lines of promotion and advancement- It is assumed that employees expect a career with the organization. Thus there are clear-cut lines of promotion and advancement. Among the rewards for remaining with the organization are job security and seniority. Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations (continued)

36 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 36 Head of the Bureaucracy (CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.) Department Head/VP Subordinate Department Head/VP

37 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 37 Effectiveness of Bureaucracies  Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards  Provides stability  Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies  In some instances, rewards incompetence and expands uncontrollably Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

38 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 38 Chapter Wrap-Up 1.How can a person’s status differ from his or her role? 2.How does role conflict affect groups and individuals? How can it be resolved? 3.What are the five most common forms of interaction recognized by sociologists? 4.Identify and describe the three broad categories of societies used by sociologists. 5.How do the roles of group members differ between primary and secondary groups? 6.What, according to Max Weber’s model, are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy? 7.What weaknesses influence the effectiveness of bureaucracies ? 1.How can a person’s status differ from his or her role? 2.How does role conflict affect groups and individuals? How can it be resolved? 3.What are the five most common forms of interaction recognized by sociologists? 4.Identify and describe the three broad categories of societies used by sociologists. 5.How do the roles of group members differ between primary and secondary groups? 6.What, according to Max Weber’s model, are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy? 7.What weaknesses influence the effectiveness of bureaucracies ? CHAPTER 4

39 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 39 Essay Questions 1.Define bureaucracy, identify the five characteristics of a bureaucracy, and then explain which of the five characteristics is most related to “The Peter Principle”. 2. Identify six types of societies and describe the subsistence strategy of each society. 1.Define bureaucracy, identify the five characteristics of a bureaucracy, and then explain which of the five characteristics is most related to “The Peter Principle”. 2. Identify six types of societies and describe the subsistence strategy of each society. CHAPTER 4


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