2 GROUP 2 OR MORE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT SHARE EXPECTATIONS AND POSSESS A SENSE OF COMMON IDENTITY
3 SOCIAL CATEGORY CLASSIFY PEOPLE WITH A COMMON TRAIT OR A COMMON STATUS SMOKERSDRIVERSTEENSBLONDESMALES/FEMALES
4 ORGANIZATION OF GROUPS FORMAL = TAKE A FORM, GOALS AND ACTIVITIES ARE DEFINEDINFORMAL = NO OFFICIAL RULES
5 SIZE DYAD = TWO MEMBERS TRIAD = THREE MEMBERS SMALL GROUP = 4-15 MEMBERSLARGE GROUP = 16 MEMBERS OR MORE
6 PRIMARY GROUPA SMALL, INFORMAL GROUP WHO INTERACT FOR A LONG TIME ON A DIRECT AND PERSONAL BASISINVOLVES ENTIRE PERSONALITYPERSON ORIENTEDFAMILY
7 SECONDARY GROUP A GROUP WHO INTERACT FOR A SPECIAL PURPOSE INVOLVES AN ASPECT OF PERSONALITYIMPERSONAL AND TEMPORARYA PERSON CAN EASILY BE REPLACEDGOAL ORIENTED
8 IN GROUP THE GROUP A PERSON BELONGS TO AND IDENTIFIES WITH SYMBOLS SEPARATE THEMPOSITIVE SELF IMAGEOTHERS MAY HAVE A NEGATIVE IMAGECOMPETE
9 OUT GROUPA GROUP A PERSON DOES NOT BELONG TO OR IDENTIFY WITH
10 REFERENCE GROUPA GROUP WITH WHOM A PERSON IDENTIFIES WITH AND WHOSE ATTITUDES AND VALUES THEY ADOPTPEER GROUPSCLUBSOCCUPATIONSGANGSPOSITIVE OR NEGATIVE
11 Rules and Socialization Socialization is the process of learning society’s rulesNorms are social rules or standardsThe Three types of Norms include:Folkways- simple everyday customsMores- serious rulesLaws- Norms made and enforced by the government of a society. Laws usually apply to mores.
12 Following the NormsPositive sanctions are rewards that one gets for following the norms of a societyNegative Sanctions are punishments that are applied to a person who breaks the norms
13 The Parts of Social Structure Social structure is the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interactionA status is a socially defined position in a group or in a society. Each status has attacked to it one or more roles.A role is the behavior- the rights and obligations- expected of someone occupying a particular status.
14 StatusStatus is a way of defining the relationships among individuals in a society in terms of their rights and obligations.Statuses can be either ascribed or achieved.
15 Ascribed and Achieved Statuses An ascribed status is assigned according to standards that are beyond a person’s control such as age group, gender ( or sex) or race.An achieved status is acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability. Achieved statuses are acquired on the basis of a person’s direct effort, often through competition.One’s master status is the status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.Owned
16 RolesRoles are the kinds of behavior that a person is supposed to exhibit (show) in a particular group or society. A person may have several roles at one time such as: friend, student, son, employeeRole expectations are socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a roleRole performance is the actual role behavior
17 Role Conflict and Role Strain Role conflict occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another statusRole strain occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status.