“two or more people who interact on the basis of shared social structure and who recognize mutual dependency” (Brinkerhoff, p. 101). Group
Groups can be distinguished from: Crowds: people who are temporarily clustered together. Categories: “people who share a characteristic” (p. 101).
Social Processes are “the forms of interaction through which people relate to one another; they are the dynamic aspects of society” (p. 98)
Four Types of Social Processes: Exchange Cooperation Competition Conflict
“Exchange is voluntary interaction from which all parties expect some reward” (Brinkerhoff, p. 98).
Norm of reciprocity : “the expectation that people will return favors and strive to maintain a balance of obligation in social relationships” (p. 98).
“Cooperation is interaction that occurs when people work together to achieve shared goals” (p. 99)
“Competition is a struggle over scarce resources that is regulated by shared rules” (p. 99).
“Conflict is a struggle over scarce resources that is not regulated by shared rules” (p. 100)
“Primary groups are characterized by intimate, face-to-face interaction” (p. 101).
“Secondary groups are formal, large, and impersonal” (p. 102)
TIES “Strong ties are relationships characterized by intimacy, emotional intensity, and sharing. “Weak ties are relationships with friends, acquaintances, and kin that are characterized by low intensity and intimacy” (p. 108).
“Complex organizations are large, formal organizations with complex status networks” (p. 115)
Weber’s Characteristics of Bureaucracy (p. 115-16) Division of labor and specialization Hierarchy of authority Rules and regulations Impersonal relationships Careers, tenure, and technical qualifications Efficiency Division of labor and specialization Hierarchy of authority Rules and regulations Impersonal relationships Careers, tenure, and technical qualifications Efficiency