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SociologyChapter 4 Social Structure Preview Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureBuilding Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social.

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Presentation on theme: "SociologyChapter 4 Social Structure Preview Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureBuilding Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social."— Presentation transcript:

1 SociologyChapter 4 Social Structure Preview Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureBuilding Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social InteractionTypes of Social Interaction Section 3: Types of SocietiesTypes of Societies Section 4: Groups Within SocietyGroups Within Society Section 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsThe Structure of Formal Organizations Chapter Wrap-Up

2 SociologyChapter 4 Read to Discover What are the two major components of social structure? How do these two components of social structure affect human interaction? Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

3 SociologyChapter 4 Question What are the two major components of social structure? Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

4 SociologyChapter 4 Status—a socially defined position in a group or in a society, which has attached to it one or more roles Role—the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

5 SociologyChapter 4 StatusExamples of Roles Examples of Conflict / Strain Firefighter Mother P.T.A. President Put out fires, save lives, wear a uniform Voluntarily puts self in danger, but has loved ones who need him or her Fatigue and long shifts make household tasks and interactions difficult Provide food and shelter, nurture family, discipline children Run meetings, recruit new members, plan activities Has trouble getting members to attend and follow through on promises Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

6 SociologyChapter 4 Question How do these two components of social structure affect human interaction? Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

7 SociologyChapter 4 People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one another Statuses are ways of defining where individuals fit in society and how they relate to others Most roles have reciprocal roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses, such as husband and wife or teacher and student Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

8 SociologyChapter 4 Read to Discover What are the most common types of social interaction? Which types of interactions stabilize social structure and which can disrupt it? Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

9 SociologyChapter 4 Question What are some common types of social interaction, and what are examples of each? Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

10 SociologyChapter 4 Exchange—interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions Competition—two or more people or groups are in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain Conflict—deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

11 SociologyChapter 4 Cooperation—two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them Accommodation—a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

12 SociologyChapter 4 Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Types of Social Interactions Exchange Competition Conflict Cooperation Accommodation

13 SociologyChapter 4 Question Which types of interactions stabilize social structure and which can disrupt it? Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

14 SociologyChapter 4 Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation—stabilize social structure Competition and Conflict—can disrupt social structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

15 SociologyChapter 4 Read to Discover What types of societies exist in the world today? What roles do individuals play in these models of group systems? Section 3: Types of Societies

16 SociologyChapter 4 Question What are the three main types of societies and characteristics or examples of each? Section 3: Types of Societies

17 SociologyChapter 4 Preindustrial—food production is the main economic activity; can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food Industrial—emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods, made possible by changes in production methods Postindustrial—much of the economy is involved in providing information and services Section 3: Types of Societies

18 SociologyChapter 4 Section 3: Types of Societies Preindustrial Industrial Postindustrial Types of Societies Hunting and gathering; pastoral; horticultural; mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity Manufacturing; urbanization; technology Information; provision of services

19 SociologyChapter 4 Question What roles do individuals play in these models of group systems? Section 3: Types of Societies

20 SociologyChapter 4 Roles related to: –Leadership –Family –Work –Specialization –Trade Section 3: Types of Societies

21 SociologyChapter 4 Read to Discover What are the major features of primary and secondary groups? What purposes do groups fulfill? Section 4: Groups Within Society

22 SociologyChapter 4 Question What are the major features of primary and secondary groups? Section 4: Groups Within Society

23 SociologyChapter 4 Primary Groups Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis Entire self of the individual is taken into account Relationships are intimate and often face-to-face Communication is deep and intense Structure is informal Section 4: Groups Within Society

24 SociologyChapter 4 Secondary Groups Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self Casual Limited in personal involvement Individual can be replaced easily Section 4: Groups Within Society

25 SociologyChapter 4 Question What are the purposes and functions of groups? Section 4: Groups Within Society

26 SociologyChapter 4 Select leaders — people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others Define boundaries — members can tell who belongs and who does not Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions Control members’ behavior — if members violate group norms, the group cannot survive long Section 4: Groups Within Society Functions of Groups

27 SociologyChapter 4 GROUP FUNCTIONS Section 4: Groups Within Society Define Boundaries Control Members’ Behavior Set Goals Assign Tasks Select Leaders Make Decisions

28 SociologyChapter 4 Read to Discover How are bureaucracies structured? How effective are bureaucracies? Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

29 SociologyChapter 4 Question How are bureaucracies structured? Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

30 SociologyChapter 4 Head of the Bureaucracy (CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.) (subordinates) Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Department Head/VP (subordinates)

31 SociologyChapter 4 Division of labor Ranking of authority Employment based on formal qualifications Rules and regulations Specific lines of promotion and advancement Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Weber’s Model

32 SociologyChapter 4 Question How effective are bureaucracies? Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

33 SociologyChapter 4 Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards Provide stability Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies In some instances, reward incompetence and expand uncontrollably Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations

34 SociologyChapter 4 Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding Main Ideas 1.How can a person’s status differ from his or her role? 2.How does role conflict affect groups and individuals? How can it be resolved? 3.What are the five most common forms of interaction recognized by sociologists? 4.Identify and describe the three broad categories of societies used by sociologists. 5.How do the roles of group members differ between primary and secondary groups? 6.What, according to Max Weber’s model, are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy? 7.What weaknesses influence the effectiveness of bureaucracies?


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