Presentation on theme: "Social Structure Preview"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Structure Preview Sociology4/15/2017Social StructurePreviewSection 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureSection 2: Types of Social InteractionSection 3: Types of SocietiesSection 4: Groups Within SocietySection 5: The Structure of Formal OrganizationsChapter Wrap-UpChapter 4
2Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Read to DiscoverWhat are the two major components of social structure?How do these two components of social structure affect human interaction?
3Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure QuestionWhat are the two major components of social structure?
4Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Sociology4/15/2017Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureStatus—a socially defined position in a group or in a society, which has attached to it one or more rolesRole—the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular statusChapter 4
5Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure StatusExamples of RolesExamples of Conflict / StrainPut out fires, save lives, wear a uniformVoluntarily puts self in danger, but has loved ones who need him or herFirefighterProvide food and shelter, nurture family, discipline childrenFatigue and long shifts make household tasks and interactions difficultMotherRun meetings, recruit new members, plan activitiesHas trouble getting members to attend and follow through on promisesP.T.A. President
6Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure QuestionHow do these two components of social structure affect human interaction?
7Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure People’s particular roles and statuses affect how they relate to one anotherStatuses are ways of defining where individuals fit in society and how they relate to othersMost roles have reciprocal roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses, such as husband and wife or teacher and student
8Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Read to DiscoverWhat are the most common types of social interaction?Which types of interactions stabilize social structure and which can disrupt it?
9Section 2: Types of Social Interaction QuestionWhat are some common types of social interaction, and what are examples of each?
10Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Exchange—interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actionsCompetition—two or more people or groups are in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attainConflict—deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person
11Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Cooperation—two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of themAccommodation—a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
12Section 2: Types of Social Interaction CompetitionExchangeTypes of Social InteractionsConflictCooperationAccommodation
13Section 2: Types of Social Interaction QuestionWhich types of interactions stabilize social structure and which can disrupt it?
14Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation—stabilize social structureCompetition and Conflict—can disrupt social structure
15Section 3: Types of Societies Read to DiscoverWhat types of societies exist in the world today?What roles do individuals play in these models of group systems?
16Section 3: Types of Societies QuestionWhat are the three main types of societies and characteristics or examples of each?
17Section 3: Types of Societies Preindustrial—food production is the main economic activity; can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing foodIndustrial—emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods, made possible by changes in production methodsPostindustrial—much of the economy is involved in providing information and services
18Section 3: Types of Societies PreindustrialIndustrialPostindustrialTypes of SocietiesHunting and gathering; pastoral; horticultural; mechanical solidarityManufacturing; urbanization; technologyOrganic solidarityInformation;provision of services
19Section 3: Types of Societies QuestionWhat roles do individuals play in these models of group systems?
20Section 3: Types of Societies Roles related to:LeadershipFamilyWorkSpecializationTrade
21Section 4: Groups Within Society Read to DiscoverWhat are the major features of primary and secondary groups?What purposes do groups fulfill?
22Section 4: Groups Within Society QuestionWhat are the major features of primary and secondary groups?
23Section 4: Groups Within Society Primary GroupsInteract over a long period of time on a direct and personal basisEntire self of the individual is taken into accountRelationships are intimate and often face-to-faceCommunication is deep and intenseStructure is informal
24Section 4: Groups Within Society Secondary GroupsInteraction is impersonal and temporary in natureInvolve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s selfCasualLimited in personal involvementIndividual can be replaced easily
25Section 4: Groups Within Society QuestionWhat are the purposes and functions of groups?
26Section 4: Groups Within Society Functions of GroupsSelect leaders—people that influence the attitudes and opinions of othersDefine boundaries—members can tell who belongs and who does notSet goals, assign tasks, and make decisionsControl members’ behavior—if members violate group norms, the group cannot survive long
27Section 4: Groups Within Society Control Members’ Behavior Define BoundariesSelect LeadersGROUP FUNCTIONSAssign TasksSet GoalsMake DecisionsControl Members’ Behavior
28Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Read to DiscoverHow are bureaucracies structured?How effective are bureaucracies?
29Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations QuestionHow are bureaucracies structured?
30Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Head of the Bureaucracy(CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.)(subordinates)Department Head/VPDepartment Head/VP(subordinates)
31Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Weber’s ModelDivision of laborRanking of authorityEmployment based on formal qualificationsRules and regulationsSpecific lines of promotion and advancement
32Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations QuestionHow effective are bureaucracies?
33Section 5: The Structure of Formal Organizations Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewardsProvide stabilityCan lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchiesIn some instances, reward incompetence and expand uncontrollably
34Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding Main Ideas How can a person’s status differ from his or her role?How does role conflict affect groups and individuals? How can it be resolved?What are the five most common forms of interaction recognized by sociologists?Identify and describe the three broad categories of societies used by sociologists.How do the roles of group members differ between primary and secondary groups?What, according to Max Weber’s model, are the major characteristics of a bureaucracy?What weaknesses influence the effectiveness of bureaucracies?