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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure- Network of interrelated statuses. Social Structure-

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure- Network of interrelated statuses. Social Structure-"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 4 Social Structure- Network of interrelated statuses. Social Structure-

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Major Components of Social Structure Status – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more roles Status – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more roles Ascribed Status- Status assigned according to standards beyond a persons control. Ex: Age, sex, family heritage, race. Ascribed Status- Status assigned according to standards beyond a persons control. Ex: Age, sex, family heritage, race. Achieved Status- Status acquired on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, ability. Achieved Status- Status acquired on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, ability. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Master Status- Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity. Master Status- Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity. Role – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status. Role – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status. Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Reciprocal Roles- Corresponding roles that define the pattern of interaction between related statuses. Ex: one cannot fulfill the role of a wife without having someone else perform the role of husband. Reciprocal Roles- Corresponding roles that define the pattern of interaction between related statuses. Ex: one cannot fulfill the role of a wife without having someone else perform the role of husband. Role Expectations- The socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role. Ex: Parents are expected to provide emotional and physical security for their children. Role Expectations- The socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role. Ex: Parents are expected to provide emotional and physical security for their children. 4

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Role Performance- actual behavior of a person performing a role. Role Performance- actual behavior of a person performing a role. Role Set- the different roles attached to a single status. Role Set- the different roles attached to a single status. Role Conflict- occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another status. Role Conflict- occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another status. Role Strain- when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status. Role Strain- when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status. Social Institution-system of statuses, roles, values and norms that is organized to satisfy the basic needs of society: Family, Education. Social Institution-system of statuses, roles, values and norms that is organized to satisfy the basic needs of society: Family, Education. 5

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Common Types of Social Interaction Exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for ones actions. Exchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for ones actions. Reciprocity- the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something. Reciprocity- the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something. Exchange Theory- people are motivated by self- interest and do things primarily for rewards. Exchange Theory- people are motivated by self- interest and do things primarily for rewards. Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Common Types of Social Interaction Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another person Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them Cooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them Accommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Accommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Section 2: Types of Social Interaction (continued)

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt Competition and Conflict – disrupt social stability Competition and Conflict – disrupt social stability Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability Section 2: Types of Social Interaction

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Types of Societies Preindustrial - Daily collection of wild plants and animals. Hunting & Gathering Societies- Daily collection of wild plants and animals. - Domesticated herd animals. Pastoral Societies- Domesticated herd animals. - Vegetables grown in garden plots from jungle or forest. Horticultural Societies- Vegetables grown in garden plots from jungle or forest. - Animals and plows used to till the fields. Agricultural Societies- Animals and plows used to till the fields. Section 3: Types of Societies

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Types of Societies – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methods Industrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methods – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services. Postindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services. 10

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Groups have 4 major features: Groups have 4 major features: 1. consist of 2 or more people. 1. consist of 2 or more people. 2. interaction among members. 2. interaction among members. 3. members must have shared expectations. 3. members must have shared expectations. 4. members must possess some sense of common identity. 4. members must possess some sense of common identity. Section 3: Types of Societies Groups Within Society

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Aggregate- when people gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization. Aggregate- when people gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization. Ex: people on an airplane, people standing on ticket line. Time- some groups meet once and never meet again. Some groups meet weekly. Time- some groups meet once and never meet again. Some groups meet weekly. Formal Group- structure goals and activities are clearly defined. Formal Group- structure goals and activities are clearly defined. Informal Group- no official structure or established rules of conduct. Informal Group- no official structure or established rules of conduct. 12

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Dyad- group with 2 members. Dyad- group with 2 members. Triad- group with 3 members. Triad- group with 3 members. Small Group- one with few enough members that everyone is able to interact face to face. Small Group- one with few enough members that everyone is able to interact face to face. Max 10 people. Types of groups: Primary, Secondary, Reference Groups, In-group, Out-group. Types of groups: Primary, Secondary, Reference Groups, In-group, Out-group. 13

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Features of Primary Groups Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis. Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis. Relationships are intimate and face-to-face. Relationships are intimate and face-to-face. Example: Family Example: Family Section 4: Groups Within Society

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Features of Secondary Groups Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature. Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature. Casual and limited to personal involvement Casual and limited to personal involvement Example: friends, business associates. Example: friends, business associates. Section 4: Groups Within Society

16 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Reference group- any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt. Reference group- any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt. In-group- group person belongs to and identifies with. In-group- group person belongs to and identifies with. Out-group- a group that a person does not belong or identify with. Out-group- a group that a person does not belong or identify with. Both primary and secondary groups can serve as these. 16

17 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON E Communities- interaction on web E Communities- interaction on web Social Networks- Facebook, Twitter Social Networks- Facebook, Twitter Groupthink-self deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs, and created for group pressure to conform. Groupthink-self deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs, and created for group pressure to conform. 17

18 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 18 Purposes of Groups Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of others Define their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does not Define their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does not Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions Control their members behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long Control their members behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long Section 4: Groups Within Society

19 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Structure of Formal Organizations Formal Organization- Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals. Formal Organization- Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals. Ex: schools, religious organizations, government agencies. Ex: schools, religious organizations, government agencies. Bureaucracy- ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures. Bureaucracy- ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures. 19

20 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Webers Model of Bureaucracies Division of Labor-Work is divided among specialists. Each specialist performs specific duties. Division of Labor-Work is divided among specialists. Each specialist performs specific duties. Ranking of Authority- There are clear-cut lines of responsibility and each individual is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level. Ranking of Authority- There are clear-cut lines of responsibility and each individual is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level. Employment based on Formal Qualifications- Employment based on Formal Qualifications- specific qualifications are required for each job. specific qualifications are required for each job. 20

21 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Rules and Regulations- There are objective rules, regulations and procedures that identify the responsibilities and authority of each person on staff. Rules and Regulations- There are objective rules, regulations and procedures that identify the responsibilities and authority of each person on staff. Specific Lines of Promotion- There are clear- cut lines of promotion and advancement. Specific Lines of Promotion- There are clear- cut lines of promotion and advancement. Voluntary Association- typically a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest. Voluntary Association- typically a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest. Ex: amateur sports teams, service clubs, charities. Ex: amateur sports teams, service clubs, charities. 21


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