Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 Social Structure- Network of interrelated statuses."— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 4 Social Structure- Network of interrelated statuses. Sociology4/1/2017CHAPTER 4 Social Structure- Network of interrelated statuses.Chapter 4
2Major Components of Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureMajor Components of Social StructureStatus – a socially defined position in a group or in a society and has attached to it one or more rolesAscribed Status- Status assigned according to standards beyond a person’s control. Ex: Age, sex, family heritage, race.Achieved Status- Status acquired on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, ability.
3Roles, Status, and Human Interaction Section 1: Building Blocks of Social StructureRoles, Status, and Human InteractionMaster Status- Status that plays the greatest role in shaping a person’s life and determining his or her social identity.Role – the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status.
4Reciprocal Roles- Corresponding roles that define the pattern of interaction between related statuses. Ex: one cannot fulfill the role of a wife without having someone else perform the role of husband.Role Expectations- The socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role. Ex: Parents are expected to provide emotional and physical security for their children.
5Role Performance- actual behavior of a person performing a role. Role Set- the different roles attached to a single status.Role Conflict- occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the expectations of another status.Role Strain- when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status.Social Institution-system of statuses, roles, values and norms that is organized to satisfy the basic needs of society: Family, Education.
6Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social InteractionExchange – interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions.Reciprocity- the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something.Exchange Theory- people are motivated by self-interest and do things primarily for rewards.Competition – two or more people or groups in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain
7Common Types of Social Interaction Section 2: Types of Social InteractionCommon Types of Social Interaction(continued)Conflict – the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone else, or to harm another personCooperation – two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of themAccommodation – a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
8Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt Section 2: Types of Social InteractionInteractions That Stabilize and DisruptCompetition and Conflict – disrupt social stabilityAccommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation stabilize social stability
9Section 3: Types of Societies PreindustrialHunting & Gathering Societies- Daily collection of wild plants and animals.Pastoral Societies- Domesticated herd animals.Horticultural Societies- Vegetables grown in garden plots from jungle or forest.Agricultural Societies- Animals and plows used to till the fields.
10Types of SocietiesIndustrial – emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods made possible by changes in production methodsPostindustrial – much of the economy is involved in providing information and services.
11Groups Within Society Section 3: Types of Societies Groups have 4 major features:1. consist of 2 or more people.2. interaction among members.3. members must have shared expectations.4. members must possess some sense of common identity.
12Aggregate- when people gather in the same place at the same time but lack organization. Ex: people on an airplane, people standing on ticket line.Time- some groups meet once and never meet again. Some groups meet weekly.Formal Group- structure goals and activities are clearly defined.Informal Group- no official structure or established rules of conduct.
13Dyad- group with 2 members. Triad- group with 3 members.Small Group- one with few enough members that everyone is able to interact face to face.Max 10 people.Types of groups: Primary, Secondary, Reference Groups, In-group, Out-group.
14Features of Primary Groups Section 4: Groups Within SocietyFeatures of Primary GroupsInteract over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis.Relationships are intimate and face-to-face.Example: Family
15Features of Secondary Groups Section 4: Groups Within SocietyFeatures of Secondary GroupsInteraction is impersonal and temporary in nature.Casual and limited to personal involvementExample: friends, business associates.
16Reference group- any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt. In-group- group person belongs to and identifies with.Out-group- a group that a person does not belong or identify with.Both primary and secondary groups can serve as these.
17E Communities- interaction on web Social Networks- Facebook, TwitterGroupthink-self deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs, and created for group pressure to conform.
18Purposes of Groups Section 4: Groups Within Society Select leaders – people that influence the attitudes and opinions of othersDefine their boundaries – so that members can tell who belongs and who does notSet goals, assign tasks, and make decisionsControl their members’ behavior – if members violate groups norms, the group cannot survive long
19Structure of Formal Organizations Formal Organization- Large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals.Ex: schools, religious organizations, government agencies.Bureaucracy- ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures.
20Weber’s Model of Bureaucracies Division of Labor-Work is divided among specialists. Each specialist performs specific duties.Ranking of Authority- There are clear-cut lines of responsibility and each individual is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level.Employment based on Formal Qualifications-specific qualifications are required for each job.
21Rules and Regulations- There are objective rules, regulations and procedures that identify the responsibilities and authority of each person on staff.Specific Lines of Promotion- There are clear-cut lines of promotion and advancement.Voluntary Association- typically a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest.Ex: amateur sports teams, service clubs, charities.