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Groups and Formal Organizations. Primary Groups and Secondary Groups Group: at least two people who have one or more goals in common and share common.

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Presentation on theme: "Groups and Formal Organizations. Primary Groups and Secondary Groups Group: at least two people who have one or more goals in common and share common."— Presentation transcript:

1 Groups and Formal Organizations

2 Primary Groups and Secondary Groups Group: at least two people who have one or more goals in common and share common ways of thinking and behaving they are in regular contact with one another they share ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving they take one another’s behavior into account they have one or more interests or goals in common

3 Neither Social Categories nor Social Aggregates are considered to be groups Social Category: people who share a social characteristic women men teenagers elderly citizens of a town Social Aggregate: people who happen to be in the same place at the same time people waiting in line for movie tickets people waiting for a bus people attending a concert witnesses of an accident

4 Primary Groups Primary Group: people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another’s company family close friends Primary Relationships: interactions that are intimate, personal, caring, and fulfilling

5 How Do Primary Groups Develop? What conditions favor their formation? small size face-to-face contact continuous contact proper social environment

6 What are the functions of primary groups? emotional support socialization encourage conformity They provide three important functions in society

7 Secondary Groups Secondary Group: people who share only part of their lives while focusing on a goal or task Secondary Relationships: impersonal relationships involving limited parts of relationships

8 Other Groups and Networks… Reference Groups Reference Group: group used for self-evaluation and the formation of attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms

9 In-Groups and Out-Groups Like two sides of a coin…you can’t have one without the other In-Group: exclusive group demanding intense loyalty (cliques) Out-Group: group targeted by in-group for opposition, antagonism, or competition jocks, cheerleaders, etc. nerds are in-groups for some, out-groups for others Freaks and Geeks

10 How are Group Boundaries Maintained? Boundaries

11 Social Networks Social Network: a web of social relationships that join a person to other people and groups Small World

12 Five Types of Social Interaction 1.Cooperation: individuals and groups combine their efforts to reach a goal Barn Raising

13 2.Conflict : interaction aimed at defeating an opponent argument

14 3. Social Exchange Social Exchange: a voluntary action performed in the expectation of getting a reward in return Sesame Street

15 4. Coercion Coercion: individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way Police show of force

16 5. Conformity Conformity: behavior that matches group expectations Candid Camera

17 Asch’s Experiment video

18 Curiosity: How Evil Are You? Medical Ethics Activity

19 What is Groupthink? Groupthink: self-deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs, and created by group pressure to conform

20 Formal Organizations high schools colleges corporations hospitals government agencies Formal Organization: a group deliberately created to achieve one or more long-term goals

21 Bureaucracy Bureaucracy: a formal organization based on rationality and efficiency

22 Major Characteristics of Bureaucracies A division of labor based on the principle of specialization Power is derived from a legitimate source A hierarchy of authority (pyramid shaped) A system of rules and procedures Written records of work and activities Promotion on the basis of merit and qualifications

23 Public School District Organization Chart

24 Bureaucracies; Good or Bad? Advantages to industrial societies: speed efficiency predictability Rationalization: mind set emphasizing knowledge, reason and planning Disadvantages? rules procedures impersonal treatment

25 Informal Structure Within Bureaucracies Informal Organization: groups that form within a formal organization Personal relationships guided by common interests, shared values. Relationships guided by norms that Are not part of the formal organization

26 Iron Law of Oligarchy Power increasingly becomes concentrated in the hands of a few members in any organization.


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