“Organization has been made by man; it can be changed by man.” -- William H. Whyte, Sociologist
Groups, Categories, and Aggregates Groups are composed of people who share several features, including: They are in regular contact with one another They share some ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving They take one another’s behavior into account They have one or more interests or goals in common Social Categories are people who share a social characteristic High school seniors Women/men Harry Potter Fanatatics/freaks Social Aggregates are people temporarily in the same place at the same time Neither categories or aggregates are groups, but some may form groups!!!
Primary Groups A primary group is composed of people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another’s company Most important for socialization Primary relationships are Intimate Personal Caring Fulfilling “You are the company that you keep”
Characteristics of Groups Boy GroupsGirl Groups Larger Less intimate More willing to allow other boys into their circles Anything else? Smaller More intimate Less willing to allow other girls into their circles Anything else? Are these difference the result of sociobiology or socialization?
How Do Primary Groups Develop? Small size Face-to-face contact Is this becoming obsolete? Dating websites, social networking sites? Continuous contact Proper social environment
What are the Functions of Primary Groups? Emotional support Socialization Encourage conformity Primary groups teach norms and values, as well as provide pressure to conform
Secondary Groups A secondary group is impersonal and goal oriented. Secondary relationships are impersonal interactions involving limited parts of personalities “Hi, how are you?” (To what extent do we really, truly care?) Sometimes, primary relationships can occur in secondary groups. And, primary groups can include secondary interaction
Other Groups Reference groups Group used for self-evaluation and the formation of attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms We may consider a reference group without being a member Evaluate ourselves in terms of others’ standards Do NOT have to be positive In-Groups require extreme loyalty from its members “we” Out-Group is a group targeted by an in-group for opposition, antagonism, or competition “they”
Groups: Where, What, How Formed around schools, teams, races, ethnicities, neighborhoods, countries, etc. Boundaries must identify who “we” are and who “they” are—otherwise there are not groups Symbols of handshakes, clothes, slang, place, style of dress, hairstyles, uniforms, etc. Maintained through loyalty and commitment to the boundaries Mean Girls Guide to In- and Out-Groups
Social Networks The web of relationships that join a person to other people and groups Social networks tie us to hundreds of people within our communities, throughout the country and around the world Durkheim’s studies on suicide and social networks Role of the internet in social interaction? Facebook Manners and You
Functions of Social Networks Provide a sense of belonging and purpose Furnish support (help and advice) Networking for jobs 25 Things I Hate About Facebook
5 Types of Social Interaction Cooperation Conflict Social exchange Coercion Conformity
Cooperation Interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach a goal Usually occurs when reaching a goal demands the best use of the limited resources and efforts Examples?
Conflict Interaction aimed at defeating an opponent Working against one another for a larger share of the rewards Defeating the opponent might be more important than achieving the goal Benefits: Promotes unity within opposing groups Attention it draws to social inequality May change social norms
Social Exchange A voluntary action performed in the expectation of getting a reward in return Different from cooperation because both people benefit from working together Not necessarily true in cooperation ○ People working together at a blood bank Is altruism self-serving? Is there a self-less good deed? What do Phoebe and Joey say?What do Phoebe and Joey say?
Coercion Interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way The opposite of social exchange Central element of coercion is domination
Conformity Behavior that matches the group expectations Beyond adolescence and into adulthood, is there a lessening or increasing need to conform? In groups, people conform because they are emotionally committed to the welfare of the group Groupthink is self-deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs, and created by group pressure to conform
Experiment: Group Pressure and Obedience Solomon Asch (1955) Many participants publicly denied their own sense because they wanted to avoid disagreeing with majority opinion Groups of male college students were asked to match lines on cards All but one were instructed to incorrectly match the wrong lines ○ The “naïve” participant went with the group 1/3 of the time
Formal Organizations Formal organization A group deliberately created to achieve one or more long-term goals Bureaucracies A formal organization based on rationality and efficiently
Major Characteristics of Bureaucracies Division of labor based on the principle of specialization A hierarchy of authority Power: the ability to control the behavior of others Authority: the legitimate or socially approved use of powers A system of rules and procedures Written records of work and activities Promotion on the basis of merit and qualifications