2 What is it?A formal organization is a large, secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals.Examples: schools, businesses, gov. agencies, labor unions, etc.Bureaucracy= ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures.Industrialization contributed to the rise of bureaucracies.Rationality= calculation, measurement and control.
3 Weber’s Model of Bureaucracies Five characteristics (Max Weber)Division of labor;Ranking of authority;Employment based on formal qualifications;Rules and regulations;Specific lines of promotion and advancement
5 Less formal organization = ??? Weber’s model is an ideal type– it represents essential characteristics. A bureaucracy can include other characteristics, but no less.Voluntary association= less bureaucratic; non-profit organization to pursue a common interest.
6 Effectiveness? Pros: Cons: Create order by clearly defining tasks; Coordinate large-scale numbers for a single goal;Provide stabilityCons:Lose sight of original goals;Development of a ‘bureaucratic personality’– desire to follow rules and regulation“red tape”
7 Iron law of oligarchyAn oligarchy exists when the few people rule the many.Robert Michels described the tendency for small groups to form within an organization the iron law of oligarchy.
8 Other takes on problems Peter Principle each employee will rise to their level of incompetence in a bureaucracy.
9 Other takes on bureaucracies Parkinson’s Law “work expands to fill the time needed for its completion”