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Social Structure Roles & statuses, interactions, types of societies, groups within society.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Structure Roles & statuses, interactions, types of societies, groups within society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Structure Roles & statuses, interactions, types of societies, groups within society

2 Types of Societies What is the feature sociologists use to classify societies? What are the 3 broad categories? Terms to know: subsistence strategies, preindustrial society, hunting & gathering society, pastoral society, division of labor, horticultural society, agricultural society, industrial society, urbanization, postindustrial society, Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft

3 Preindustrial – *Food production = main economic activity – 4 subdivisions Hunting & gathering – *move around in search of food (fewer permanent artifacts, small group size) Pastoral – *domesticate animals to meet food needs (larger populations, more complex division of labor: other jobs, more than just meeting food needs) Horticultural – *keeping gardens/fields instead of gathering wild plants for food. (similar to pastoral – some migrating, but more stable than pastoral, more complex division of labor) Agricultural – *develop more advanced technology to cultivate crops. (higher surplus, larger society; specialization – even more than pastoral & horticultural)

4 Industrial – *Production of manufactured goods – Use of machines vastly increases amount produced & speed! – Can support much larger population size – People move to cities for work instead of doing it at home (urbanization) Postindustrial – *Production of information & services – Standard of living goes up; strong emphasis on science & technology

5 Durkheim said we have generally shifted from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft – Gemeinschaft = “community”; most people know each other, close relationships, group solidarity – Gesellschaft = “society”; relationships based on need, not emotion; impersonal; individualistic

6 Social Structure Status – defined position in a group or society – Each person has several statuses, each with roles – Ascribed status – assigned to you (ex: teenager, boy) – Achieved status – acquired through your efforts & abilities (ex: basketball champion) – Master status – the one that does the most to define who you are; above all the others Can change over the course of your life (student  spouse  parent  career title  grandparent) Role – the behavior expected of someone in a particular status

7 – Role strain – difficulty meeting the expectations of a particular status (ex: you struggle with the all the homework you need to do for your status as “student”) – Role conflict – fulfilling the role of one status interferes with fulfilling the role of another (ex: you need to be at work from 4-10 to fulfill your role as “employee” BUT this makes it difficult to do all the homework you need to do for your status as “student”)

8 Groups Within Society What makes a group? 1.Consists of 2 or more people 2.Interaction among members 3.Shared expectations 4.Sense of common identity If you don’t have all 4, you’re not a group! (ex: aggregate, social category) Can vary greatly in size, organization, type & functions

9 Size – Dyad – a group with 2 members Each member controls the group’s existence (if one leaves, no more group) – Triad – a group with 3 members – Small group – a group of 4 – 15 people Need to be able to interact face-to-face to be a “small group” Any more than 15, people tend to start making subgroups Organization – Formal (set structure, goals & protocol) vs. informal (loose structure, rules are folkways, not laws)

10 Type – Primary group – direct, personal interactions over longer period of time (ex: family) – Secondary group – impersonal, temporary interactions; more casual; less concerned with the “whole” person (ex: boss & employee) Your best friend cares about your problems with your boyfriend – your boss probably doesn’t CAN exist together (i.e. a co-worker who becomes a friend) – Reference group – people with whom a person identifies & shares values these are people you look to for attitudes, roles & norms Don’t necessarily need to belong to that group to use it as a reference

11 – E-community – people who interact regularly on the internet New type of group; similar interactions to face-to-face groups – discuss issues, share stories, give advice, play games, etc. Functions – Define boundaries – Select leaders (instrumental – get things done; and expressive – keep group together & boost morale) – Set goals – Make decisions – Control group members’ behavior (nonconformity)

12 Formal Organizations Read Ch. 4 Section 5 (pg. 83, 86-87) 1.Define: formal organization, bureaucracy, voluntary association 2.What are Weber’s 5 characteristics of bureaucracy? 3.How might primary group relationships still exist within a formal organization? (use the electric company example to explain!) 4.Give 2 benefits of bureaucracies (according to Weber); give 3 possible weaknesses

13 Formal organization Bureaucracy Voluntary organization 5 characteristics of bureaucracy Primary groups can exist within a formal organization….

14 Functions of BureaucraciesDysfunctions of Bureaucracies

15 Social Interaction Exchange – interaction done to get something in return – Based on idea of reciprocity – if you do something for someone, they owe you – Exchange theory – people are generally motivated by reward (weigh cost/benefit ). Sound familiar? Competition – people or groups oppose each other to try to achieve the same goal – Emphasis on reaching the goal – Common method in schools, businesses – Can be motivating, can lead to conflict

16 Conflict – deliberate attempt to control, harm, or oppose – Emphasis on defeating the opponent – Simmel said there are 4 major sources: War, legal disputes, disagreements within groups, & ideological disputes – Again, can be damaging; but can strengthen in- group relations by focusing on an out-group Cooperation – people or groups work together to accomplish a common goal

17 Accommodation – give & take (not full cooperation) – Ex: motel – 4 forms: Compromise Truce Mediation Arbitration – Pg. 72 #3


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