Presentation on theme: "The Babylonian Captivity, the Great Schism, and the Hundred Years’ War"— Presentation transcript:
1The Babylonian Captivity, the Great Schism, and the Hundred Years’ War
2The “Babylonian Captivity” 1309-1376 * The Catholic Church and the monarchies of Europe were at odds since the 13th centuryThey would fight over land, policies, and controlPhilip the Fair of France pressured Pope Clement V to relocate the papal residence to an area called Avignon (SE France) so that he could control the church and its policies.- About 70 yearsCalled the “Babylonian Captivity” to make reference to the ancient Hebrews and their captivity in Mesopotamian Babylon
4Problems….Many Christians were opposed to the papacy’s distance from its roots in RomeMany felt the Church was too focused on policies and not enough on spiritual mattersRome became poor over the absence of the pope and the tourist tradePope Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome in 1377, but died shortly afterThe Roman citizens demanded that an Italian pope become Gregory’s successorThis led to…..
5….The Great SchismThe College of Cardinals felt great pressure to elect an Italian to be the next popeThey elect Pope Urban VI in 1378Pope Urban planned to reform the Church of its abusesBrought the papal seat back to RomeWhile Urban had good intentions, he went about it the wrong way by threatening many people!
6More Problems…Pope Urban’s actions brought about disaster as many French cardinals disputed his legitimacy as popeThey elected Pope Clement VII, a relative of King Charles V of France who would live in AvignonThere are now 2 popes, hence the “Great Schism”- or divisionMany countries threw their support for one pope or the other based on political motivationsThe schism weakened the faith of many Christians and they questioned the Church
7The Conciliar Movement The schism of the Catholic Church led many Christians to question its authority.Many called for reform in the Church.The Conciliarists believed that the pope should gain his political power from the people, not from a king (democratic thought)Scholars like John Wyclif & Jan Hus believed that the Church should only be concerned with the Scriptures and Christian teachings
8An End to the SchismIn 1409, the Council of Pisa, consisting of cardinals from both Rome and Avignon deposed the 2 reigning popes and elected a new oneThe 2 previous popes would not step down, there were now 3 popes!The Council of Constance was then called ( ) and all 3 popes were deposed. Martin V, a Roman, became pope.The “Great Schism” was over. Future popes would never again have the power of those before them.
9Question? Write a paragraph responding to the prompt below: Explain the connections between the Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism.
10The Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453 #1 Cause: Succession to the throne of France Edward III vs. Philip VIEdward III of England’s uncle in France died childlessEdward had the right to the French throne, but the French nobles gave the throne to a distant relative, Philip VIEdward III and Philip VI dispute became the basis for the Hundred Years’ WarEngland and France have been historic enemies
11England’s Victories England gained early victories: Led by Edward III and his son, the Black PrinceWon important battles at Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356), Agincourt (1415)Formed an alliance with the Burgundians
12France’s Victories France will officially win the war in 1453 Joan of Arc ( ) emerges during this periodShe is given command of an army & lifts the moraleBelieved she was chosen by God for this missionDresses like a man in battle. Scandalous!Burned at the stake by the English in 1431 for being a “witch”
13Results of the WarAdded death and destruction (aside from what the Black Plague did)Heavy taxes led to peasant revoltsEngland lost £5 million to the warRepresentative democracies emerge throughout Europe during this time period. The English Parliament grows stronger. Not in FranceNationalism develops: Feelings of unity and pride in your countryThe rise of intelligent thought through the upcoming Renaissance time period