Presentation on theme: "The Babylonian Captivity, the Great Schism, and the Hundred Years’ War."— Presentation transcript:
The Babylonian Captivity, the Great Schism, and the Hundred Years’ War
The “Babylonian Captivity” * The Catholic Church and the monarchies of Europe were at odds since the 13 th century -They would fight over land, policies, and control Philip the Fair of France pressured Pope Clement V to relocate the papal residence to an area called Avignon (SE France) so that he could control the church and its policies. - About 70 years Called the “Babylonian Captivity” to make reference to the ancient Hebrews and their captivity in Mesopotamian Babylon
Problems…. Many Christians were opposed to the papacy’s distance from its roots in Rome Many felt the Church was too focused on policies and not enough on spiritual matters Rome became poor over the absence of the pope and the tourist trade Pope Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome in 1377, but died shortly after The Roman citizens demanded that an Italian pope become Gregory’s successor This led to…..
….The Great Schism The College of Cardinals felt great pressure to elect an Italian to be the next pope They elect Pope Urban VI in 1378 Pope Urban planned to reform the Church of its abuses Brought the papal seat back to Rome While Urban had good intentions, he went about it the wrong way by threatening many people!
More Problems… Pope Urban’s actions brought about disaster as many French cardinals disputed his legitimacy as pope They elected Pope Clement VII, a relative of King Charles V of France who would live in Avignon There are now 2 popes, hence the “Great Schism”- or division Many countries threw their support for one pope or the other based on political motivations The schism weakened the faith of many Christians and they questioned the Church
The Conciliar Movement The schism of the Catholic Church led many Christians to question its authority. Many called for reform in the Church. The Conciliarists believed that the pope should gain his political power from the people, not from a king (democratic thought) Scholars like John Wyclif & Jan Hus believed that the Church should only be concerned with the Scriptures and Christian teachings
An End to the Schism In 1409, the Council of Pisa, consisting of cardinals from both Rome and Avignon deposed the 2 reigning popes and elected a new one The 2 previous popes would not step down, there were now 3 popes! The Council of Constance was then called ( ) and all 3 popes were deposed. Martin V, a Roman, became pope. The “Great Schism” was over. Future popes would never again have the power of those before them.
Question? Write a paragraph responding to the prompt below: Explain the connections between the Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism.
The Hundred Years’ War #1 Cause: Succession to the throne of France. Edward III vs. Philip VI Edward III of England’s uncle in France died childless Edward had the right to the French throne, but the French nobles gave the throne to a distant relative, Philip VI Edward III and Philip VI dispute became the basis for the Hundred Years’ War England and France have been historic enemies
England’s Victories England gained early victories: –Led by Edward III and his son, the Black Prince –Won important battles at Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356), Agincourt (1415) –Formed an alliance with the Burgundians
France’s Victories France will officially win the war in 1453 Joan of Arc ( ) emerges during this period –She is given command of an army & lifts the morale –Believed she was chosen by God for this mission –Dresses like a man in battle. Scandalous! –Burned at the stake by the English in 1431 for being a “witch”
Results of the War Added death and destruction (aside from what the Black Plague did) Heavy taxes led to peasant revolts England lost £5 million to the war Representative democracies emerge throughout Europe during this time period. The English Parliament grows stronger. Not in France Nationalism develops: Feelings of unity and pride in your country The rise of intelligent thought through the upcoming Renaissance time period