Presentation on theme: "The Hundred Years’ War & The Plague Chapter 14.4."— Presentation transcript:
The Hundred Years’ War & The Plague Chapter 14.4
Warm Up What were the three main problems that the Church wanted to reform?
Lay investiture- process of nobles and kings appointing church officials Simony- selling church positions Marriage of priests- this was against the beliefs of the Church
Church Divided Pope Boniface VIII attempted to enforce King Philip IV of France to obey Pope Sept, King Philip IV kidnapped pope. Pope was rescued but died soon after
Great Schism Philip IV persuaded cardinals to choose French archbishop as new pope. Clement V moved from Rome to Avignon in France Pope Gregory XI died Cardinals elected Pope Urban VI (Rome) – Reformer; arrogant Elected Clement VII soon after (Avignon) Each pope declared the other to be false Split in the Church- Great Schism (aka Western Schism)
In 1414, Council of Constance tried to end Great Schism by choosing another pope (now there are three!) Holy Roman Emperor (Sigismund) forces all three to resign Martin V- new pope. This ends Schism but weakens Church The Catholic Church was further weakened by scholars who spoke about the Church. John Wycliffe and Jan Hus were the two most outspoken. Here Jan Hus is being tried at the Council of Constance- he was later burned at the stake.
Bubonic Plague Bubonic Plague- 1/3 of Europe’s population died from Plague in 1300’s. Began in Asia- spread by traders Caused by fleas that lived on rats Unclean living conditions made plague more deadly (people carried fleas and lice) million people died in Western Europe, 25 million in Asia
Effects of Plague Manor system starts to weaken Serfs leave manor in search for better jobs Nobles refuse to pay higher wages- causes peasant revolts in many countries Town populations fall Trade declines, prices rise Jews are blamed for bringing plague and are persecuted Church suffers loss of power when prayer does not stop plague
The Hundred Years’ War Conflict between England and France from Ended medieval European society Last Capetian king died without successor and King Edward III of England (Philip IV’s grandson) claimed French throne. Warfare changes – Some knights still followed code of chivalry – English archers used longbow to knock knights off of horse. Foot soldiers then attacked with knives – Joan of Arc- peasant girl who led the French to victory (burned at stake by English for heresy)
Impact of Hundred Years’ War Feeling of nationalism emerged in England in France – King was national leader – Patriotism towards country, not feudal lord – Power and prestige of French king increased – England suffered civil war called War of Roses