2Warm UpWhat were the three main problems that the Church wanted to reform?
3Lay investiture- process of nobles and kings appointing church officials Simony- selling church positionsMarriage of priests- this was against the beliefs of the Church
4Church Divided1300- Pope Boniface VIII attempted to enforce King Philip IV of France to obey PopeSept, King Philip IV kidnapped pope. Pope was rescued but died soon after
5Great Schism1305- Philip IV persuaded cardinals to choose French archbishop as new pope.Clement V moved from Rome to Avignon in France.1378- Pope Gregory XI diedCardinals elected Pope Urban VI (Rome)Reformer; arrogantElected Clement VII soon after (Avignon)Each pope declared the other to be falseSplit in the Church- Great Schism (aka Western Schism)
61417- Holy Roman Emperor (Sigismund) forces all three to resign In 1414, Council of Constance tried to end Great Schism by choosing another pope (now there are three!)1417- Holy Roman Emperor (Sigismund) forces all three to resignMartin V- new pope. This ends Schism but weakens ChurchThe Catholic Church was further weakened by scholars who spoke about the Church. John Wycliffe and Jan Hus were the two most outspoken. Here Jan Hus is being tried at the Council of Constance- he was later burned at the stake.
7Bubonic PlagueBubonic Plague- 1/3 of Europe’s population died from Plague in 1300’s.Began in Asia- spread by tradersCaused by fleas that lived on ratsUnclean living conditions made plague more deadly (people carried fleas and lice)20-25 million people died in Western Europe, 25 million in Asia
9Effects of Plague Manor system starts to weaken Serfs leave manor in search for better jobsNobles refuse to pay higher wages- causes peasant revolts in many countriesTown populations fallTrade declines, prices riseJews are blamed for bringing plague and are persecutedChurch suffers loss of power when prayer does not stop plague
10The Hundred Years’ WarConflict between England and France fromEnded medieval European societyLast Capetian king died without successor and King Edward III of England (Philip IV’s grandson) claimed French throne.Warfare changesSome knights still followed code of chivalryEnglish archers used longbow to knock knights off of horse. Foot soldiers then attacked with knivesJoan of Arc- peasant girl who led the French to victory (burned at stake by English for heresy)
11Impact of Hundred Years’ War Feeling of nationalism emerged in England in FranceKing was national leaderPatriotism towards country, not feudal lordPower and prestige of French king increasedEngland suffered civil war called War of Roses