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Western Civ. Unit 5 PP 4 The 100 Years War (1337-1453) & The Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Western Civ. Unit 5 PP 4 The 100 Years War (1337-1453) & The Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Western Civ. Unit 5 PP 4 The 100 Years War ( ) & The Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy

2 Background and catalyst French King Charles IV dies in 1328 French King Charles IV dies in 1328 The only heir is the Son of Charles IV’s sister Isabella and Edward II King of England the 14 year old Edward III The only heir is the Son of Charles IV’s sister Isabella and Edward II King of England the 14 year old Edward III The Barons of France sought to exclude Edward and chose Phillip VI Valois as King of France The Barons of France sought to exclude Edward and chose Phillip VI Valois as King of France In 1337 Phillip VI confiscated Gascony claiming Edward had not fulfilled his feudal obligations In 1337 Phillip VI confiscated Gascony claiming Edward had not fulfilled his feudal obligations Edward III now 23 years old claimed his right as King of France and war begins Edward III now 23 years old claimed his right as King of France and war begins

3 The Course of the War to 1419 France loses most major battles ( why?) France loses most major battles ( why?) 3x the population 3x the population much wealthier nation much wealthier nation Disunity (some supported Edward III) Disunity (some supported Edward III) Provincial concerns Provincial concerns English military superiority (longbow, leadership, discipline) English military superiority (longbow, leadership, discipline)

4 English Victory? The Battle of Crecy 1346: The Battle of Crecy 1346: The longbow defeats the French Crossbow The longbow defeats the French Crossbow The Battle of Agincourt 1415 The Battle of Agincourt 1415 English led by Henry V (r ) English led by Henry V (r ) He defeated larger French force He defeated larger French force By 1419 he is at the gates of Paris and signs the Treaty of Troyes with the French King Charles VI By 1419 he is at the gates of Paris and signs the Treaty of Troyes with the French King Charles VI Disinherited the Dauphin (Charles VII) Disinherited the Dauphin (Charles VII) Henry V made the new heir to the French throne Henry V made the new heir to the French throne Henry marries the French King’s daughter Henry marries the French King’s daughter Is it over? Is it over?

5 Joan of Arc ( ) 17 year old peasant girl from Domremy 17 year old peasant girl from Domremy She heard voices telling her to ask the Dauphin for an army to expel the English She heard voices telling her to ask the Dauphin for an army to expel the English Led the French forces to victory at the Battle of Orleans in 1429 Led the French forces to victory at the Battle of Orleans in 1429 A few months later the Dauphin (now Charles VII) was crowned King of France in Rheims A few months later the Dauphin (now Charles VII) was crowned King of France in Rheims The only English territory remaining was Calais The only English territory remaining was Calais In 1430 Joan was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English In 1430 Joan was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English Charles could have helped but chose not to Charles could have helped but chose not to She was burned as a heretic (in 1920 she was made a saint) She was burned as a heretic (in 1920 she was made a saint)

6 Costs and Consequences Both Nations saw: Population decline, disruption of trade and agriculture, peasant uprisings, blurring of class distinction in warfare Both Nations saw: Population decline, disruption of trade and agriculture, peasant uprisings, blurring of class distinction in warfare Questioning of the Church Questioning of the Church In England: 5 mil. Pounds sterling, breakdown of local order, parliament increased power, civil war (the War of the Roses) In England: 5 mil. Pounds sterling, breakdown of local order, parliament increased power, civil war (the War of the Roses) In France: Nationalism, devotion to king, increased Kings power In France: Nationalism, devotion to king, increased Kings power

7 The Babylonian Captivity of the Church The Schism Early Protestants

8 The catalyst War between England and France (1294) War between England and France (1294) The Kings of both countries Edward I (England) and Phillip IV the fair (Fr) decided to pay for the war by taxing the church The Kings of both countries Edward I (England) and Phillip IV the fair (Fr) decided to pay for the war by taxing the church Pope Boniface VIII calls this “an assault on the Church” Pope Boniface VIII calls this “an assault on the Church” Phillip kept Church revenue in France Phillip kept Church revenue in France Edward denied clergy protection of law in England Edward denied clergy protection of law in England Boniface backed down Boniface backed down Significance? Victory of State over Church Significance? Victory of State over Church

9 Phillip picks a fight Phillip arrested a French Bishop to assert his control over the French Church Phillip arrested a French Bishop to assert his control over the French Church Called the Pope a heretic Called the Pope a heretic Boniface issues 2 Papal Bulls Boniface issues 2 Papal Bulls Asculta fili”…God has placed popes above Kings Asculta fili”…God has placed popes above Kings Followed by “Unum Sanctum” Followed by “Unum Sanctum” Phillip arrests the Pope who is beaten badly and died shortly after his release Phillip arrests the Pope who is beaten badly and died shortly after his release Phillip pressured the new Pope Clement V to settle at Avignon in 1309 Phillip pressured the new Pope Clement V to settle at Avignon in 1309 Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy (lasts until 1377) Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy (lasts until 1377)

10 The Great Schism ( ) Gregory XI returns to Rome in 1378 and dies Gregory XI returns to Rome in 1378 and dies The people of Rome demand an Italian Pope The people of Rome demand an Italian Pope The Cardinals elect Urban VI (arrogant tactless) The Cardinals elect Urban VI (arrogant tactless) Result: Cardinals elect another “Anti-Pope” Clement VII who returns the to Avignon and began the Great Schism Result: Cardinals elect another “Anti-Pope” Clement VII who returns the to Avignon and began the Great Schism The Council of Pisa elects a new Pope Alexander V who rules from Pisa) Now 3 Popes The Council of Pisa elects a new Pope Alexander V who rules from Pisa) Now 3 Popes Resolution: Council of Constance elects Martin V in 1417 to end schism Resolution: Council of Constance elects Martin V in 1417 to end schism No resolution on any other issue (heresy corruption) No resolution on any other issue (heresy corruption)

11 Early Protests John Wycliffe (d.1384) John Wycliffe (d.1384) Leader of the “Lollards” in England Leader of the “Lollards” in England Oxford theologian Oxford theologian Supremacy of scripture Supremacy of scripture Royal power over Pope Royal power over Pope Poverty of clergy Poverty of clergy 1 st Engl. Translation of Bible 1 st Engl. Translation of Bible

12 Early protests Jan Huss Jan Huss Many of the same ideas as Wycliffe Many of the same ideas as Wycliffe Also a bohemian nationalist Also a bohemian nationalist Burned at the stake to begin the Council of Constance Burned at the stake to begin the Council of Constance


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