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1300 - 1453 Worst century and a half in European History.

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Presentation on theme: "1300 - 1453 Worst century and a half in European History."— Presentation transcript:

1 Worst century and a half in European History

2 Black Death 1330 – Plague devastates parts of western China – Plague gradually spreads through central Asia and into Crimea – Mongols fight at Kaffa Army stricken with Plague 1347 – Genoan traders fled Kaffa to return to Italy Carried Plague to Sicily and up the coast of Italy – Plague outbreaks devastated Europe 25 million deaths in Europe (one-third total population)

3 Black Death

4 Hundred Years War – France versus England Started by Edward III (Eng) and Philip VI (Fr) Both had claims to French throne (but Ed is vassal of Phil) – England won most of the battles Used longbow and dismounted warriors (new tactics) Battles – Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt – France turned tide in Battle of Orleans Joan of Arc led the French army Resulted in about 3.5 million deaths

5 Hundred Years War

6 Papal Schism – Papacy in Avignon Controlled by French king Rome became wasteland – Popes in Rome and Avignon 1377 – Gregory XI returned to Rome but died in 1378 French cardinals unhappy with replacement and elect another 1410 – Council of Pisa elects a third pope 1417 – Council of Constance finally replaces 3 popes Martin V is new pope in Rome Schism taints the image of the Church and the papacy

7 Papal Schism

8 Fall of Constantinople 1200s - Nomads chased out of central Asia by the Mongols Establish small kingdom in northwestern Anatolia 1307 – Seljuk Sultanate of Rum defeated by the Mongols Ottomans begin to conquer the remaining small Turkish clans until they dominate Anatolia Filled power vacuum left by Seljuks and weakened Byzantines By 1450, Ottomans control most of Anatolia and eastern Balkans Mehmet II decided to attack Constantinople Constantinople fell in 1453 Post-1453 – Ottomans threatened western Europe

9 Fall of Constantinople

10 What is going on??? Black Death Hundred Years War Papal Schism Fall of Constantinople These catastrophic events shook the foundations of European civilization Europeans began to question everything Additionally, new ideas “escaped” Constantinople with Byzantine scholars

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