Presentation on theme: "9. What are the features of the Late Middle Ages? crises/renewal 1300- a. starvation-for lack of farming land to meet the growing population, as forests/marshland."— Presentation transcript:
9. What are the features of the Late Middle Ages? crises/renewal 1300- a. starvation-for lack of farming land to meet the growing population, as forests/marshland were exploited; b. Black Death-1348-1359 from Italy; c. Hundred Year ’ s War-1337-1453 marking the chivalry and knightly warfare replaced by guns/cannons; arousing French nationalism; d. Papacy declined-conflict with king; Wycliffe ’ s salvation by the study of
Bible, not through rituals of priests; 10.What is the historical significance of the Middle Ages? seeds of today a. universities; liberal arts; laws; b. state system, nationalism by Joan of Arc; separation of church/state; c. cities as commercial centers more than political and religious ones; d. a history of ceaseless borrowing, adaptation, and change: Romans, Franks, Visigoths mingled, fought and reappeared in new forms; Bible, not through rituals of priests; 10.What is the historical significance of the Middle Ages? seeds of today a. universities; liberal arts; laws; b. state system, nationalism by Joan of Arc; separation of church/state; c. cities as commercial centers more than political and religious ones; d. a history of ceaseless borrowing, adaptation, and change: Romans, Franks, Visigoths mingled, fought and reappeared in new forms;
Effects of the Black Death The Black Death, an epidemic of plague in Europe that lasted from 1347 to 1351, resulted in the deaths of almost one-quarter of Europe ’ s population. The Black Death was the first in a cycle of plagues in Europe that continued into the 18th century. Shown here, the French city of Marseille is devastated by a later outbreak of plague.
Death of Wat Tyler Wat Tyler led a rebellion of peasants against King Richard II of England in 1381. Although the king at first agreed to the rebels ’ demands, he soon went back on his word and had many of the peasants executed. Here, Tyler is about to be slain by William Walworth, the mayor of London, while Richard II watches.
Edward III In 1338 Edward III, king of England and son of Isabella of France, declared himself king of France, instigating the Hundred Years ’ War between England and France. This painting shows Edward, seated, wearing a robe decorated with English and French emblems.
Joan of Arc At the age of 13, Joan of Arc convinced Charles, the heir to the French throne, that God had sent her to save France during the Hundred Years ’ War with England. She led the French to several military victories over the English in 1429. Joan of Arc was captured by the English and burned at the stake in 1431.
Philip IV (of France) Philip IV, king of France, is known for his struggle with the Roman Catholic church that first arose from his attempt to tax the clergy. After Pope Boniface VIII issued a statement declaring papal supremacy in 1302, Philip had him imprisoned. In 1305 Philip secured the election of one of his adherents as Pope Clement V, who moved the papacy from Rome to Avignon, France, in 1309 and came under Philip ’ s control.
Papal Palace, Avignon, France In 1305, through the influence of Philip IV, king of France, the papal court was moved from Rome to Avignon. This period when the popes were dominated by the French monarchs has become known as the Babylonian Captivity. The papal palace today remains a symbol of this period of exile.
John Wycliffe Trained in the scholasticism of the medieval Roman Catholic church, 14th-century theologian John Wycliffe became disillusioned with ecclesiastical abuses. He challenged the church ’ s spiritual authority and sponsored the translation of the Christian Scriptures into English. Here, Wycliffe is pictured reading his translation of the Bible to English nobleman John of Gaunt, far right. Wycliffe ’ s writings later inspired leaders of the Protestant Reformation such as John Huss and Martin Luther.
Execution of Jan Hus The execution of Jan Hus (John Huss) by burning at the stake during the council of Constance in 1415 triggered a dispute that would embroil Bohemia in war for the next 15 years. Although no major issues were settled in the conflict, the people of Bohemia emerged from the ordeal with a solid sense of national identity.
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