Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nations More importantly– the rise of NATIONALISM."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise of Nations More importantly– the rise of NATIONALISM
France and England Split Multiple wars between Feudal States led France and England to emerge as individual nations No longer were they intertwined by nobles owning land in both regions.
Magna Carta June 15, 1215 Originally for wealthy nobles, later applied to all citizens –No taxation w/out representation –Trial by Jury Main Idea: Limited Monarchy!! (Checked power of monarchy)
Model Parliament King Edward I realized with rise of cities/ trade he could now tax middle-class, not just nobles He called together a parliament that represented commoners and nobles “What affects all should be approved by all” Eventually split to 2 houses –House of Commons –House of Lords Parliament became a check on the king’s power
French King’s Gained Power Estates General –First Estate: Clergy –Second Estate: Lords –Third Estate: Middle-class –Met to discuss issues between different classes Unlike parliament in England, gave king more power over nobles
Result: nation-states King’s had obviously greater power than nobles Nation-states were made of people with similar culture and language that occupied a specific territory under ONE government. Middle class winning a larger share of political power
Power Struggle: King or Pope French King Philip IV taxed churches to pay for war with England Pope Boniface VIII issued a papal bull. –No more taxing of church –Spiritual power always supreme over secular power Philip IV laughed, then had Boniface kidnapped…he was busted out but later died
Rome V. Avignon French Bishop named Pope, Clement V. He claimed that political violence threatened him and he moved from: Rome, Italy to Avignon, France For 67 years, papacy lived in extravagance in France Catholics from other nations NOT happy
The John’s John Wycliffe –English Hero –Translated bible into English Wycliffe’s Major Ideas: –True head of church was Jesus, not Pope –Clergy should live in poverty –Bible -not pope- final authority on Christian life
John Huss –Bible was final authority, not Pope Excommunicated in 1411 Burned at the stake in 1414
Brought by trade ships from Asia Raging Fever Black swellings Death in 24 hrs. 25,000,000/ 1/3 of Europe’s pop. Plague kept returning until 1600’s Priests also afraid and people got angry Peasants revolted b/c with pop. decline, they did not have to listen to Nobles– Serfdom began to disappear. The Plague
Four Stages of War 1337-60: English captured much of France 1361-96: France reconquers most land 1397-1420: England conquers N. ½ of France 1421-53: Joan of Arc leads troops to finally take back France (except Calais).
New Weapons Changed Warfare England gets the longbow – raining arrows stopped many mounted knights Cannons were used by both sides and could smash down castle walls Feudalism gets battered down New feelings of nationalism arise
Joan of Arc Saved France! Heard heavenly voices telling her to drive the English out! Captured after achieving her goal, and the English Church declared her a witch and burned her at the stake The Church apologized 500 yrs. Later and declared her a saint instead
War of the Roses -Fight between 3 families -The end of the Civil War marked the end of the medieval period for England -Winner is Henry Tudor, or Henry the VI