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Swine Industry After completing this unit of instruction, students will be able to: A. Define terms relating to swine production; B. List common swine.

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Presentation on theme: "Swine Industry After completing this unit of instruction, students will be able to: A. Define terms relating to swine production; B. List common swine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Swine Industry After completing this unit of instruction, students will be able to: A. Define terms relating to swine production; B. List common swine breeds and characteristics; C. Classify breeds of swine by their purposes & types; D. Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs; E. Explain the importance of the swine industry and its contributions; and F. List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs.

2 Pork has changed in the last 20+ years… Today's pig yields a pork loin with: 77% less fat 53% fewer calories!

3 In the late 1970s Americans became aware of the link between fat in their diet and health. People began changing their diet: –Between 1979 and 1985, demand for pork fell 4 percent per year. –Sales of chicken surged. America’s change in diet revolutionized the pork industry

4 Science improves the pork you buy today. Since 1983, fat content of pork has been reduced 31%. Many pork cuts have less cholesterol than chicken.

5 How?????? Improved Feed Improved Environment Improved Genetics

6 Swine Terms Sow: female pig that has produced litters Gilt: young female pig which has not produced young Barrow: Male hog that has been castrated while quite young Boar: male hog of breeding age Objective A: Define terms relating to swine production

7 Weaner pig: young pig that no longer relies on the sow’s milk. Pure Bred: an animal carrying only one blood line. Mongrel: an animal of nondescript or mixed breeding Pedigree: a written record of an individual animal’s parentage and ancestry. Farrow: Process of a female pig giving birth Swine Terms Objective A: Define terms relating to swine production

8 Landrace Originated in Denmark Drooped ears Known for their maternal instincts White Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

9 Berkshire Originated in England Black with white legs, snout and switch Erect ears Once kept at Buckingham Palace Well known meat breed Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

10 Chester White Originated in Chester County, Pennsylvania White Drooped ears Mothering breed, produces large litters Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

11 Duroc Originated in US Red Drooped ears Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

12 Hampshire Originated in the United States Oldest American breed Black with a white belt Small, erect ears Well-known meat breed Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

13 Hereford Originated in Missouri Developed from crossing Berkshires and Durocs Red with white face, legs and underline Drooped ear Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

14 Poland China Originated in the US Black with white snouts, legs and switch Generally poor mothers Drooped ears Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

15 Spots Developed in Indiana Black and white spots Drooped Ear Efficient feeders Noted for rapid weight gain Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

16 Yorkshire Originated in England White Large, erect ears Known as “The Mother Breed” Produces large litters Swine Breeds Objective B: List common swine breeds and characteristics

17 Lard Type- Known to carry a lot of fat example: Berkshire, Poland China, Bacon Type- Known to be long and have a deep side example:Tamworth, Yorkshire Meat Type- Produce a lot of meat in general example: All other breeds Swine Types Objective C: Classify Breeds of Swine by their purposes and types

18 Production systems: 1- Farrow to Finish: Pigs are farrowed and raised til ready to harvest all at the same facility. 2-Feeder Pig System- Farrows pigs and raises and sells after weaning. (about 40 lbs) 3- Finishing Feeder Pig System- Buys weaned pigs and raises til ready to harvest. 4- Purebred System: Goal is to produce high quality registered breeding stock for use by commercial facilities. -Least common Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs Swine Production Systems

19 Circle 4 Farms Milford, UT Farrow to Finish 12 th largest in the world. Circle Four markets 24,000 pigs each week. Most commercial pigs are raised in buildings such as this. These building are thermostatically controlled but do have windows with automatic curtains. Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

20 General Swine Management: Fresh water Adequate feed (usually corn) Heat in winter or cooling in summer – Trivia: Why do pigs like the mud? Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

21 Facts about Pigs!!! How much do newborn piglets weigh when they are born? – 3 to 5 pounds How much do pigs weigh when they go to market at 6 months old? – 250 pounds Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

22 Piglets 1- Clip Needle Teeth 2- Castrate males 3- Notch ears: method of identifying pigs -Used instead of ear tags because pigs easily rub tags out Pig’s RIGHT= Litter number Pig’s LEFT= pig number Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

23 Litter# =31Pig# 9+1=10 Litter# 81+1=82Litter# 27 Litter# 9 Pig# 9+1+1=11Pig# 9+3+1=13 Pig# 1+3=4 Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

24 FACTS about PIGLETS… – Nurse (drink milk from the mother (sow) – Nurse every hour for the first three weeks – Need to be kept warm at 90 degrees (heat mat or heat lamp) Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

25 Sows – Farrowing Crate Used to prevent sow from laying on piglets Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

26 More Facts about about Sows… How long is the gestation period of a sow? –3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days –A sow has two litters per year (all her piglets are called a litter ) –Sows average 8 to 12 piglets in a litter Objective D: Explain pork production systems, production practices, and facility needs

27 Swine Contributions The average consumer in the U.S. eats fifty pounds of pork per year. Objective E: Explain the importance of the swine industry and its contributions to society

28 Byproducts from Pigs – Crayons – Chalk – Cement – Dye – Jello – Paint brushes – Plastic – Makeup – Matches – Antifreeze – Weedkillers – Dog Food – Linoleum Byproduct= A secondary or incidental product. NOT the original intention. Objective E: Explain the importance of the swine industry and its contributions to society

29 Medical Contributions Heart Valves Insulin Pigskin Research Objective E: Explain the importance of the swine industry and its contributions to society

30 Nutritional Facts about PORK… Protein Iron Zinc Vitamin B Thiamine Builds and repairs body tissues Helps with energy production Enhances and protects bones Ensures healthy nerve tissue Builds and repairs nerves and muscles Objective E: Explain the importance of the swine industry and its contributions to society

31 Pork and the Rural Economy Pork Industry consumes 10% of the total US corn crop billion bushels. Pork Industry consumes 27% of all soybean meal million bushels. Objective E: Explain the importance of the swine industry and its contributions to society

32 . Steps to Judging Swine 1.View animal from the ground up, then from the rear and work forward 2.Rank based on the traits of importance they possess Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

33 Ranking of Traits Market Hog 1. Degree of muscling 2. Growth 3. Capacity or volume 4. Degree of leanness 5. Structure and soundness Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

34 1- Degree of Muscling 1-Center width of Hams Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

35 1- Degree of Muscling 2- Width of Base Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

36 1- Degree of Muscling -Bad= very smooth over top and no shape to muscle -Good= Large pork chops on both sides of the backbone give the extreme “butterfly” shape 3- Shape Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

37 2- Growth Rule of thumb: Heaviest pig = fastest growing pig Lightest pig = slowest growing pig. Hogs sold by the pound Pigs need to grow at a high rate and reach market weight at an early age Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

38 3- Evaluating Capacity and Volume Width Depth Length (determined by body width, depth, and length) Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

39 4- Degree of Leanness Lean Fat Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

40 5-Evaluating Structure and Soundness Bad=Straight hock Bad= Swollen or “Puffy” hocks Well formed hock 1- Hock Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

41 5-Evaluating Structure and Soundness 5-Evaluating Structure and Soundness 2- rump Bad=Extremely Steep Good rump- allows for fluid movement Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

42 5-Evaluating Structure and Soundness 5-Evaluating Structure and Soundness 3-shoulders Bad= Too straight Good slope- ease in movement Overall: -Can the hog move easily? -Is it limping? Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

43 Judge Class #1 Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

44 Judge Class #2 Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

45 Judge Class #3 Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

46 Judge Class #4 Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

47 3 – 1 – Score Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

48 Go to: youth/judging/index.html Judge Market Hog – Class 2 & 3 – Hampshire Gilts – Crossbred Gilts – Write your placing Objective F: List important points to consider when selecting a swine breed and judge a class of market hogs

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