3 Common Core/ Next Generation Science Standards Addressed CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST a - Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
4 Bell Work 1.Name as many breads of swine as you can? 2.Are pigs Ruminants?3.Can a gilt be a father and why?4.What is better ham or bacon, and why?
5 Student Learning Objectives Locate major physical characteristics of swine.Describe common swine breeds.Explain selection of superior animals.Contrast various pork production systems and methods of marketing hogs.
10 What are the major parts of a hog? Main use of swine is for meat4 primary carcass cuts (most valuable meat)picnic shoulderhamloinBoston ShoulderOther carcass cuts (usually ground into sausage)jowlsidehock
12 What are the common swine breeds and characteristics of the breeds?
13 Duroc Originated in the United States color is varying shades of red droopy earsgood mothering abilityefficient feed convertersfast growth ratea meat-type hog
14 Hampshire Originated in England black hogs with a white belt that encircles the forepart of body, starting behind head and neckerect earsforaging abilityleanness of carcassmusclingused as show animals or in crossbreeding programs
15 Yorkshire Originated in Yorkshire, England color is white, can have black freckleslong bodieserect earslarge littersgood mothering abilitygood feed efficiencyrapid growthused as bacon-type hogs or in crossbreeding programs
16 Hereford Originated from the Poland China, Duroc and other breeds color is red with a white facedroopy earsprolificgood mothering abilityforaging ability
17 Berkshire Originated in Berkshire & Wiltshire Counties in England color is black with 6 white points (feet, tail, snout)erect earsmedium-sized hoglean carcass
18 Poland China Originated in Ohio color is black with six white points (feet, tail, & facedrooping earslarge breedproduces carcasses with large loin eyesvery little back fatcommonly used in crossbreeding programs
19 Chester White White in color with drooping ears. Originated in Pennsylvania.Very aggressiveUsed in cross breeding programs
20 Black and white spots with drooping ears. Original cross between a Poland China and English spot. Developed in Ohio.
21 Landrace White with very large drooping ears Originated in Denmark Considered a bacon breed in Europe.
22 Tamworth Red/brown with erect ears. Originated in England/Ireland. A lean breed, but not noted for exceptional growth.
24 How do I know which hogs are better than others? TermsSpecific pathogen free (SPF)these swine are free from diseases at birth/raised indoorsPorcine Stress Syndrome (PSS)an inherited neuromuscular disease in heavily muscled animalsTypemeans that you are trying to find an animal that is close to ideal as possible
25 How do I know which hogs are better than others? More termsMeatinessdescribes how much meat and fat an animal hasPedigreea record of ancestry or heredityProduction testingthe best way to evaluate and make predictions on an animal’s potential to be productive
26 How do I know which hogs are better than others? Selection will vary based on your personal preference and production needsbuying wrong animals could lead to failure of your businessThings to look for:sizehealthtypepedigreeproduction testing
27 How do I know which hogs are better than others? Health of animals is very importantYou want to purchase animals that are disease freeHerds should be certified brucellosis & pseudorabies freeNever buy swine from herds that do not offer health information available from the sellerTest for PSSObserve animals for parasites & diseasesIsolate animals with problems to avoid spreading
28 How do I know which hogs are better than others? Select for typemeatinessgenetic defectsPSSpedigreeavoid genetic defects by researching pedigrees
29 How do I know which hogs are better than others? Swine registries have production testing for purebred animalscharacteristics included in registriesoffspringhealthappearanceback fatability to grow quicklyreproductive qualitiesif breed standards are met
31 What are the different production systems and how do they work? TermsFarrowingprocess of a female pig giving birthFeeder pigsa pig that has been weaned and weighs approximately 40 pounds
32 Sow and Litter SystemsPigs are farrowed and fed up to slaughter weight at the same farmconfinement or pasture systemsmost common swine operations
33 Sow and Litter Systems Confinement Advantages pigs can be marketed throughout the yearless laborincome throughout the yearDisadvantageexpensive startup costsPastureAdvantagelower initial investmentDisadvantagesmore labor intenseproduction might be limited depending on season
35 Purebred SystemProduces breeding stock that others producers will use in their systemsRequires intense managementregistration paperworkLeast common operationLess than 1% of all hogs raised in the U.S. are registered purebredsPurebreds are extremely important because of breed improvements
36 Purebred Systems To be a purebred producer you must know: a great deal about geneticsshowing & promotion of your breedPurebred Producers are working to:create animals that will meet consumer demands
37 Feeder Pig Production System Breed & farrow litters of pigletsThis systems farrows and weans and sells the feeder pigsKeeps a breeding herd of sows that farrow between 14 to 16 piglets eachMinimal investment is requiredMust mange to keep a steady supply of feeder pigs to sellLess feed is required in this system
39 Finishing Feeder-Pig System Operations that buy feeder pigs and feed them until they are market weight approximately 240 poundsProfit is based upon how much feed it takes to produce 1 pound of porkThe less feed it takes the more profitBalancing feed rations is very important in this system
41 Review What are the major parts of a hog? What are the common swine breeds and characteristics of the breed?How do I know which hogs are better than others?What are the different production systems and how do they work?