Common Core/ Next Generation Science Standards Addressed CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.4 - Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.2a - Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
Bell Work 1.Name as many breads of swine as you can? 2.Are pigs Ruminants? 3.Can a gilt be a father and why? 4.What is better ham or bacon, and why?
Student Learning Objectives Locate major physical characteristics of swine. Describe common swine breeds. Explain selection of superior animals. Contrast various pork production systems and methods of marketing hogs.
Terms Barrow Boar Farrowing Feeder Pig Gilt Meatiness Meat-type hog Pedigree Piglet Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) Production testing Prolificacy Sow Specific pathogen free Type
Swine Terms Piglet –a baby pig Barrow –a male pig that was castrated at a young age Gilt –a young female pig that has not given birth or “farrowed” Sow –an older female pig Boar –mature male hog
Swine Terms Prolificacy –the ability to produce large numbers of offspring Meat-type hog –hog that produces the greatest amount of high value meat cuts
What are the common swine breeds and characteristics of the breeds?
Duroc Originated in the United States color is varying shades of red droopy ears good mothering ability efficient feed converters fast growth rate a meat-type hog
Hampshire Originated in England black hogs with a white belt that encircles the forepart of body, starting behind head and neck erect ears foraging ability leanness of carcass muscling used as show animals or in crossbreeding programs
Yorkshire Originated in Yorkshire, England color is white, can have black freckles long bodies erect ears large litters good mothering ability good feed efficiency rapid growth used as bacon-type hogs or in crossbreeding programs
Hereford Originated from the Poland China, Duroc and other breeds color is red with a white face droopy ears prolific good mothering ability foraging ability
Berkshire Originated in Berkshire & Wiltshire Counties in England color is black with 6 white points (feet, tail, snout) erect ears medium-sized hog lean carcass
Poland China Originated in Ohio color is black with six white points (feet, tail, & face drooping ears large breed produces carcasses with large loin eyes very little back fat commonly used in crossbreeding programs
Chester White White in color with drooping ears. Originated in Pennsylvania. Very aggressive Used in cross breeding programs
Black and white spots with drooping ears. Original cross between a Poland China and English spot. Developed in Ohio.
Landrace White with very large drooping ears Originated in Denmark Considered a bacon breed in Europe.
Tamworth Red/brown with erect ears. Originated in England/Ireland. A lean breed, but not noted for exceptional growth.
How do I know which hogs are better than others? Terms Specific pathogen free (SPF) –these swine are free from diseases at birth/raised indoors Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) – an inherited neuromuscular disease in heavily muscled animals Type –means that you are trying to find an animal that is close to ideal as possible
How do I know which hogs are better than others? More terms Meatiness –describes how much meat and fat an animal has Pedigree –a record of ancestry or heredity Production testing –the best way to evaluate and make predictions on an animal’s potential to be productive
How do I know which hogs are better than others? Selection will vary based on your personal preference and production needs buying wrong animals could lead to failure of your business Things to look for: –size –health –type –pedigree –production testing
How do I know which hogs are better than others? Health of animals is very important You want to purchase animals that are disease free Herds should be certified brucellosis & pseudorabies free Never buy swine from herds that do not offer health information available from the seller Test for PSS Observe animals for parasites & diseases Isolate animals with problems to avoid spreading
How do I know which hogs are better than others? Select for type –meatiness –genetic defects –PSS –pedigree avoid genetic defects by researching pedigrees
How do I know which hogs are better than others? Swine registries have production testing for purebred animals characteristics included in registries –offspring –health –appearance –back fat –ability to grow quickly –reproductive qualities –if breed standards are met
What are the different production systems and how do they work? Terms Farrowing –process of a female pig giving birth Feeder pigs –a pig that has been weaned and weighs approximately 40 pounds
Sow and Litter Systems Pigs are farrowed and fed up to slaughter weight at the same farm confinement or pasture systems most common swine operations
Sow and Litter Systems Confinement Advantages pigs can be marketed throughout the year less labor income throughout the year Disadvantage expensive startup costs Pasture Advantage lower initial investment Disadvantages more labor intense production might be limited depending on season
Purebred System Produces breeding stock that others producers will use in their systems Requires intense management –registration paperwork Least common operation Less than 1% of all hogs raised in the U.S. are registered purebreds Purebreds are extremely important because of breed improvements
Purebred Systems To be a purebred producer you must know: –a great deal about genetics –showing & promotion of your breed Purebred Producers are working to: –create animals that will meet consumer demands
Feeder Pig Production System Breed & farrow litters of piglets This systems farrows and weans and sells the feeder pigs Keeps a breeding herd of sows that farrow between 14 to 16 piglets each Minimal investment is required Must mange to keep a steady supply of feeder pigs to sell Less feed is required in this system
Finishing Feeder-Pig System Operations that buy feeder pigs and feed them until they are market weight approximately 240 pounds Profit is based upon how much feed it takes to produce 1 pound of pork The less feed it takes the more profit Balancing feed rations is very important in this system
Review What are the major parts of a hog? What are the common swine breeds and characteristics of the breed? How do I know which hogs are better than others? What are the different production systems and how do they work?