3Student Learning Objectives Students will………. Locate major physical characteristics of swine.Describe common swine breeds.Explain selection of superior animals.Contrast various pork production systems and methods of marketing hogs.
4I can locate major physical characteristics of swine. Objective #1
5What are the major parts of a hog? TermsPiglet - a baby pig.Barrow - a male pig that was castrated at a young age.Gilt - a young female pig that has not given birth or farrowed.Sow - an older female pig.Boar - mature male hog.
6What are the major parts of a hog? Swine has been genetically modified by breeding practices to:Have a strong bone structureRaise a more of a meat-type hog that is:Lower in fat.Higher in leaner.
8What are the major parts of a hog? Main use of swine is for meat.4 primary carcass cuts (most valuable meat).picnic shoulder, ham, loin, boston shoulder.Other carcass cuts (usually ground into sausage).jowl, side, hock.
11Quick Quiz 1 Identify this part 2. What are 2 products you could expect from this cut?3.What are two of the 4 primary carcass cuts?4. What percentages does the picnic ham makeup5. What is an example of a cut you would expect to be ground into sausage?1.2
12I can describe common swine breeds. Objective #2I can describe common swine breeds.
13What are the common swine breeds and characteristics of the breeds? TermsProlificacythe ability to produce large numbers of offspring.Meat-type hoghog that produces the greatest amount of high value meat cuts.
14Originated in England.Black hogs with a white belt that encircles the forepart of body, starting behind head and neck.Erect ears.Foraging ability.Leanness of carcass.Muscling.Used as show animals or in crossbreeding programs.
15Originated in Yorkshire, England. Color is white, can have black freckles.Long bodies.Erect ears.Large litters.Good mothering ability.Good feed efficiency.Rapid growth.Used as bacon-type hogs or in crossbreeding programs.
16Originated in the United States. Color is varying shades of red.Droopy ears.Good mothering ability.Efficient feed converters.Fast growth rate.Prolificacy.A meat-type hog.
17Poland China Originated in Ohio Poland China Record Association P.O. Box 9758 Peoria, Illinois (309)Originated in OhioColor is black with six white points (feet, tail, & face).Drooping ears.Large breed.Produces carcasses with large loin eyes.Very little back fat.Commonly used in crossbreeding programs.
18Hereford Originated from the Poland China, Duroc and other breeds. Color is red with a white face.Droopy ears.Prolific.Good mothering ability.Foraging ability.National Hereford Hog Record AssociationRt. 1 Box 37, Flandreau, SD 57028
19Berkshire Originated in Berkshire & Wiltshire Counties in England. American Berkshire Association P.O. Box 2436 West Lafayette, Indiana (317)BerkshireOriginated in Berkshire & Wiltshire Counties in England.Color is black with 6 white points (feet, tail, snout).Erect ears.Medium-sized hog.Lean carcass.
20Spot Originated from the Poland China Breed color of large black and white spotsSpots are popular with farmers and commercial swine producers for their ability to transmit their fast-gaining, feed efficient, meat qualities to their offspring.
21Landrace Developed in Denmark White in color and spots are not desirableears are large and heavy and are carried close to the faceprolific and satisfactory mothersreach their top milk production after five weeks of lactation
33How do I know which hogs are better than others? TermsSpecific pathogen free (SPF)These swine are free from diseases at birth.Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS)An inherited neuromuscular disease in heavily muscled animals.TypeMeans that you are trying to find an animal that is close to ideal as possible.
34How do I know which hogs are better than others? TermsMeatiness - describes how much meat and fat an animal has.Pedigree - a record of ancestry or heredity.Production testing - the best way to evaluate and make predictions on an animal’s potential to be productive.
35How do I know which hogs are better than others? Selection will vary based on your personal preference and production needs.Buying wrong animals could lead to failure of your business.Things to look for:size, health, type, pedigree, production testing.
36How do I know which hogs are better than others? Health of animals is very important.You want to purchase animals that are disease free.Purchase animals from a SPF herd.Herds should be certified brucellosis & pseudorabies free.
37How do I know which hogs are better than others? Never buy swine from herds that do not herd health information available from the seller.Test for PSS.Observe animals for parasites & diseases.Isolate animals with problems to avoid spreading.
38How do I know which hogs are better than others? Select for typeMeatinessGenetic defectsPSSPedigreeAvoid genetic defects if research pedigrees.
39How do I know which hogs are better than others? Swine registries have production testing for purebred animals.Characteristics included in registries:offspringhealthappearanceback fatability to grow quicklyreproductive qualitiesif breed standards are met
40Objective #4I can contrast various pork production systems and methods of marketing hogs.
42What are the different production systems and how do they work? TermsFarrowingprocess of a female pig giving birth.Feeder pigsa pig that has been weaned and weighs approximately 40 pounds.
43What are the different production systems and how do they work? Before the type of operation can be selected must look at your operation for:Existing buildings.Feed storage facilities.
44Sow and Litter SystemsPigs are farrowed and fed up to slaughter weight at the same farm.Confinement or pasture systems.Most common swine operations.
45Sow and Litter Systems Confinement Advantages Pigs can be marketed throughout the year.Less labor.Income throughout the year.DisadvantageExpensive startup costs.PastureAdvantageLower initial investment.DisadvantagesMore labor intense.Production might be limited depending on season.
46Purebred SystemProduces breeding stock that others producers will use in their systems.Requires intense management - registration paperwork.Least common operation.Less than 1% of all hogs raised in the U.S. are registered purebreds.Purebreds are extremely important because of breed improvements.
47Purebred Systems To be a purebred producer you must know: A great deal about genetics.Showing & promotion of your breed.Purebred Producers are working to:Create animals that will meet consumer demands.
48Feeder Pig Production System Breed & farrow litters of piglets.This systems farrows and weans and sells the feeder pigs.Keeps a breeding herd of sows that farrow between 14 to 16 piglets each.Minimal investment is required.Must manage to keep a steady supply of feeder pigs to sell.Less feed is required in this system.
49Finishing Feeder-Pig System Operations that buy feeder pigs and feed them until they are market weight approximately 240 pounds.Profit is based upon how much feed it takes to produce 1 pound of pork.The less feed it takes the more profit.Balancing feed rations is very important in this system.
50Review What are the major cuts of a hog? What are the common swine breeds and characteristics of the breed?How do I know which hogs are better than others?What are the different production systems and how do they work?