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Swine Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Swine Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Swine Notes

2 Leading states in hog production:
Iowa - #1 Illinois Minnesota Indiana Nebraska Missouri North Carolina Ohio Kansas South Dakota

3 People prefer to raise hogs because?
Faster turnover in money - breeding to marketing offspring is only 9-10 months Hogs eat large amounts of grain -more efficient in converting feed Hogs give birth more than once per year Hogs produce more young per birth than any other animal Labor is low Hogs are profitable 9 out of 10 years

4 4 prime cuts of meat: Picnic shoulder Loin Boston shoulder ham

5 Factors for selecting a herd boar:
Reproductive soundness (testicles) Type and quality (length, loin-eye, back fat thickness) Performance testing results Pedigree (ancestry) Health (brucellosis, leptospirosis, pseudorabies) Age (don’t breed before 9 months old) Show ring performance


7 Selecting sows: Soundness (sexual and structure) Conformation
Gain and feed efficiency Litter size health

8 Sow Productivity Index:
# pigs born alive # pigs weaned Litter weight at 21 days of age # litters per sow per year

9 Feeder pig selection: Health Type Size (35-80 lbs.) Uniformity

10 Feeding Swine Corn – basic energy feed used in hog rations
-lacks several amino acids necessary (lysine and tryptophan) -must be supplemented with protein, minerals, and vitamins

11 Feeding Swine Barley: substitute for corn
-higher fiber and less digestible energy than corn -check barley for scabs (disease in barley) -must be supplemented also

12 Feeding Swine: Milo (grain sorgum) -ground in the south
-Higher protein than corn -substitute for corn -add supplements also

13 Breeding Facts: Gilts should be 8 months before they are bred (weigh 250lbs) Boars should be 9 months old before they are bred Breed gilts twice at 12 hour intervals Breed sows twice at 24 hour intervals Put in farrowing crate 1 day before they should give birth Keep newborns at degrees


15 Clip needle teeth and naval cord right away
Dock tails of pigs and give iron shots Castrate young Wean 5-8 weeks old and at least 12 lbs. Ear notch

16 Kinds of swine markets:
Direct marketing: -selling to packing plants, order, buyers, or country buying stations -76% of hogs are sold this way -producer deals with the buyer 2. Terminal markets: -hogs are cosigned to a commission firm -the firm deals with the buyer -12% of hogs are sold this way -buyers compete and can raise the profit more than in the direct market

17 3. Auction markets: -8% in US sold this way -cost to market the swine are commissions, insurance, yardage, and feed costs 4. Group marketing: -groups pull together in a co-op to fight for better market prices

18 Pricing methods: Sold on weight at market
Sold on weight and grade groups at market standards (standards are set by the buyer) Grade and yield -determine price after slaughter -in an error is made, no possible way to re-grade the animal

19 Market Classes and Grades:
Determine classification by: Sex Use (slaughter or feeder) Their grade Barrows and gilts’ grades are based on carcass quality and the yield of the 4 lean cuts

20 5 USDA grades US No1 US No2 US No3 US No4 US Utility

21 To determine official grade, estimate:
Backfat thickness Muscle score Equation: (4.0 x backfat thickness over last rib, in inches)-(1.0 x muscling score)

22 Muscle Scores: Thin = 1 Average = 2 Thick (superior) = 3
Exp: backfat = 1.05 inches and superior muscling Answer = 1.2 (US No 1 Grade)

23 Preliminary Grades: <1.00 in = US No 1 1.0 – 1.24 in = US No 2

24 Shrinkage: Hogs lose weight when shipped
You’ll always have at least 2% shrinkage no matter the distance

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