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Swine Introduction and Breeds

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Presentation on theme: "Swine Introduction and Breeds"— Presentation transcript:

1 Swine Introduction and Breeds
Dr. Randy Harp

2 Swine Domestication species Factors favorable for swine production
sus scrofa - wild boar sus vittatus - domesticated pig Factors favorable for swine production prolificacy conversion of grain and waste to meat cash flow is quicker

3 Swine Factors unfavorable Future cost of grain
more sensitive to careless management susceptibility to diseases fencing or facilities labor esp. at farrowing Future competition, human consumption of pork

4 Feeding Swine Basic diet = corn and soybean meal
Pelleted versus bulk ground meal Basic nutrients Protein CHO Fat Vitamins and minerals Water

5 Swine Feeding Stages starter pig ration at 10- 40 lbs (18%)
grower at /125 lbs (16%) finishing at lbs (12-14%) feed efficiency should be around 3:1 3 lbs of feed to - one lb. of wt. gain replacement gilts - 4 lbs/day increase feed 2-3 X during lactation

6 Swine Feeding cont. Sows & boars are condition dependent
do not over feed Soft Pork - caused by lower melting points in the fat caused by feeding certain feeds:ie too much peanut meal Trichinosis – trad. garbage fed swine Pale, Soft, and Exudative Pork

7 Swine Breeding Purebred: linebreeding, outcrossing
Crossbreeding- hybridization Company specific Commercial industry

8 Swine Reproduction Gestation- 114 days Estrous – 21 days
Estrus – 2-3 days Birth weight 2-4 lbs. Weaning weight lbs. Days at market (250 lbs) - 180

9 Swine Establishing a herd
Type and breed size and age of animals to purchase Health (diseases) Water quality and availability price selection systems Environmental control (housing) / EPA waste management

10 Swine Types and breeds of swine Causes for type Types consumer demand
availability of feeds breeding type by breeders Types meat, bacon, lard

11 Swine Major purebred breeds Hampshire Yorkshire Duroc Spot Poland
Chester White Landrace

12 US Swine Breeds Four Classifications Sire / Carcass Breeds
- 40 World wide - Only 8 Industry Impact Four Classifications Sire / Carcass Breeds Maternal Breeds Minor Breeds Swine Company Genetics

13 Breeds of Swine classification by type
lard, meat, or bacon all US breeds are now meat/lean type 7 major purebreeds vs new and hybrid breeds Black and Red or sire/Carcass breeds White or Mother Breeds/Maternal

14 Sire/Carcass Breeds Berkshire- black with six white points with erect ears origin- England/ medium frame size probably the best mother of colored breeds Hampshire- black with white belt origin - Boone County, Kentucky known as the carcass breed


16 Sire/Carcass Breeds Berkshire Developed: Characteristics: Noted For:
Berkshire England Characteristics: Black with erect 6 – white points Face, legs, tail Noted For: True Pure Breed Highest Pork Quality Berkshire Gold - Premium Pork Product

17 Sire/Carcass Breeds Hampshire- most popular sire or terminal crosses
Poland China- black with six white points with drooping ears origin- Butler and Warren counties, Ohio known for their carcass merit and size



20 Sire/Carcass Breeds Hampshire Developed: Characteristics: Noted For:
Hampshire Co. England Imported in 1825 to Kentucky Called “Thin Rinds” Major growth in 30’s Characteristics: Black with a White Belt Noted For: Carcass Traits Heaviest muscled leanest breed




24 Colored Breeds cont. Spot - Spotted Poland China until 1961
approx. 50 % white and black with drooping ears origin - Indiana from Gloucester Old Spots imported from England Pietran- known for carcass yield, not qual. Duroc - Red with drooping ears (light sandy to dark red) known for growth, & hardiness


26 Sire/Carcass Breeds Pietrain Developed: Characteristics: Noted For:
Belgium Characteristics: Spotted Double muscled Noted For: Leanness and muscle Below average pork quality


28 Sire/Carcass Breeds Duroc Developed: Characteristics: Noted For:
New Jersey Reds Sire named “Duroc” Characteristics: Red body Variation is light to dark Noted For: Ruggedness / durability Feed efficiency Rate of Growth



31 White Breeds Yorkshire - white with erect ears (occasionally black spots on the skin that does not disqualifiy them to be registered) known as the “Mother Breed” due to their prolificacy, milking ability, feed efficiency, and structurally sound origin- England , where it is known as the Large White

32 Mother Breeds Yorkshire Developed: Characteristics: Noted For:
York county England Imported in 1830 Characteristics: White with Erect ears A large breed Noted For: Maternal characteristics Most carcass oriented of Mother breeds “Dual Purpose”



35 Maternal Breeds Chester White Developed: Characteristics: Noted For:
Chester Co Pennsylvania Mid 1800’s from White hogs in the area Characteristics: White body More Bone “Rugged design compared to other mother breeds” Noted For: Maternal characteristics Durability Meat quality

36 White Breeds Chester White- white with drooping ears
origin - Chester and Delaware counties of Pennsylvannia excellent mothering ability, prolific, and adapt well



39 White Breeds American Landrace- white long bodied, level topped, straight snout and lop ears origin- Denmark Very prolific and may have 16 to 17 pairs of ribs (normal is 13) may have black spots or freckles

40 Mother Breeds Landrace Developed: Characteristics: Noted For:
From Danish Landrace 1930’s imported Characteristics: White with Big Droopy ears Fine boned Distinctively long bodied Noted For: Most Prolific Breed Largest litter size


42 Other Breeds Hereford Tammworth OIC - Ohio Improved Chester
Many hybrids for commercial breeding


44 Cross Breeding Crossbreeding Developed:
To improve the hog being developed by utilizing the positives from the breeds selected Greater performance and growth rates from increased hybrid vigor


46 Developing F1 crosses Hampshire Yorkshire

47 Developing F1 crosses Hampshire Duroc H D Terminal Boars

48 Terminal Line Maternal Line

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