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Swine Introduction and Breeds Dr. Randy Harp. Swine Domestication Domestication species species –sus scrofa - wild boar –sus vittatus - domesticated pig.

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Presentation on theme: "Swine Introduction and Breeds Dr. Randy Harp. Swine Domestication Domestication species species –sus scrofa - wild boar –sus vittatus - domesticated pig."— Presentation transcript:

1 Swine Introduction and Breeds Dr. Randy Harp

2 Swine Domestication Domestication species species –sus scrofa - wild boar –sus vittatus - domesticated pig Factors favorable for swine production Factors favorable for swine production –prolificacy –conversion of grain and waste to meat –cash flow is quicker

3 Swine Factors unfavorable Factors unfavorable –cost of grain –more sensitive to careless management –susceptibility to diseases –fencing or facilities –labor esp. at farrowing Future Future –competition, human consumption of pork

4 Feeding Swine Basic diet = corn and soybean meal Basic diet = corn and soybean meal Pelleted versus bulk ground meal Pelleted versus bulk ground meal Basic nutrients Basic nutrients –Protein –CHO –Fat –Vitamins and minerals –Water

5 Swine Feeding Stages starter pig ration at lbs (18%) starter pig ration at lbs (18%) grower at /125 lbs (16%) grower at /125 lbs (16%) finishing at lbs (12-14%) finishing at lbs (12-14%) feed efficiency should be around 3:1 feed efficiency should be around 3:1 3 lbs of feed to - one lb. of wt. gain 3 lbs of feed to - one lb. of wt. gain replacement gilts - 4 lbs/day replacement gilts - 4 lbs/day increase feed 2-3 X during lactation increase feed 2-3 X during lactation

6 Swine Feeding cont. Sows & boars are condition dependent Sows & boars are condition dependent do not over feed do not over feed Soft Pork - caused by lower melting points in the fat caused by feeding certain feeds:ie too much peanut meal Soft Pork - caused by lower melting points in the fat caused by feeding certain feeds:ie too much peanut meal Trichinosis – trad. garbage fed swine Trichinosis – trad. garbage fed swine Pale, Soft, and Exudative Pork Pale, Soft, and Exudative Pork

7 Swine Breeding Purebred: linebreeding, outcrossing Purebred: linebreeding, outcrossing Crossbreeding- hybridization Crossbreeding- hybridization Company specific Company specific –Commercial industry

8 Swine Reproduction Gestation- 114 days Gestation- 114 days Estrous – 21 days Estrous – 21 days Estrus – 2-3 days Estrus – 2-3 days Birth weight 2-4 lbs. Birth weight 2-4 lbs. Weaning weight lbs. Weaning weight lbs. Days at market (250 lbs) Days at market (250 lbs) - 180

9 Swine Establishing a herd Type and breed Type and breed size and age of animals to purchase size and age of animals to purchase Health (diseases) Health (diseases) Water quality and availability Water quality and availability price price selection systems selection systems Environmental control (housing) / EPA Environmental control (housing) / EPA waste management waste management

10 Swine Types and breeds of swine Types and breeds of swine Causes for type Causes for type –consumer demand –availability of feeds –breeding type by breeders Types Types –meat, bacon, lard

11 Swine Major purebred breeds Major purebred breeds –Hampshire –Yorkshire –Duroc –Spot –Poland –Chester White –Landrace

12 US Swine Breeds Sire / Carcass Breeds Sire / Carcass Breeds Maternal Breeds Maternal Breeds Minor Breeds Minor Breeds Swine Company Genetics Swine Company Genetics Four Classifications - 40 World wide - Only 8 Industry Impact

13 Breeds of Swine classification by type classification by type –lard, meat, or bacon all US breeds are now meat/lean type all US breeds are now meat/lean type 7 major purebreeds vs new and hybrid breeds 7 major purebreeds vs new and hybrid breeds Black and Red or sire/Carcass breeds Black and Red or sire/Carcass breeds White or Mother Breeds/Maternal White or Mother Breeds/Maternal

14 Sire/Carcass Breeds Berkshire- black with six white points with erect ears Berkshire- black with six white points with erect ears origin- England/ medium frame size origin- England/ medium frame size probably the best mother of colored breeds probably the best mother of colored breeds Hampshire- black with white belt Hampshire- black with white belt origin - Boone County, Kentucky origin - Boone County, Kentucky known as the carcass breed known as the carcass breed

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16 Sire/Carcass Breeds Developed: Developed: –Berkshire England Characteristics: Characteristics: –Black with erect –6 – white points Face, legs, tail Face, legs, tail Noted For: Noted For: –True Pure Breed –Highest Pork Quality Berkshire Berkshire Gold - Premium Pork Product

17 Sire/Carcass Breeds Hampshire- most popular sire or terminal crosses Hampshire- most popular sire or terminal crosses Poland China- black with six white points with drooping ears Poland China- black with six white points with drooping ears origin- Butler and Warren counties, Ohio origin- Butler and Warren counties, Ohio known for their carcass merit and size known for their carcass merit and size

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20 Sire/Carcass Breeds Developed: Developed: –Hampshire Co. England –Imported in 1825 to Kentucky –Called “Thin Rinds” –Major growth in 30’s Characteristics: Characteristics: –Black with a White Belt Noted For: Noted For: –Carcass Traits –Heaviest muscled leanest breed Hampshire

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24 Colored Breeds cont. Spot - Spotted Poland China until 1961 Spot - Spotted Poland China until 1961 approx. 50 % white and black with drooping ears approx. 50 % white and black with drooping ears origin - Indiana from Gloucester Old Spots imported from England origin - Indiana from Gloucester Old Spots imported from England Pietran- known for carcass yield, not qual. Pietran- known for carcass yield, not qual. Duroc - Red with drooping ears (light sandy to dark red) Duroc - Red with drooping ears (light sandy to dark red) known for growth, & hardiness known for growth, & hardiness

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26 Sire/Carcass Breeds Developed: Developed: –Belgium Characteristics: Characteristics: –Spotted –Double muscled Noted For: Noted For: –Leanness and muscle –Below average pork quality Pietrain

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28 Sire/Carcass Breeds Developed: Developed: –New Jersey Reds –Sire named “Duroc” Characteristics: Characteristics: –Red body –Variation is light to dark Noted For: Noted For: –Ruggedness / durability –Feed efficiency –Rate of Growth Duroc

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31 White Breeds Yorkshire - white with erect ears (occasionally black spots on the skin that does not disqualifiy them to be registered) Yorkshire - white with erect ears (occasionally black spots on the skin that does not disqualifiy them to be registered) known as the “Mother Breed” due to their prolificacy, milking ability, feed efficiency, and structurally sound known as the “Mother Breed” due to their prolificacy, milking ability, feed efficiency, and structurally sound origin- England, where it is known as the Large White origin- England, where it is known as the Large White

32 Mother Breeds Developed: Developed: –York county England –Imported in 1830 Characteristics: Characteristics: –White with Erect ears –A large breed Noted For: Noted For: –Maternal characteristics –Most carcass oriented of Mother breeds –“Dual Purpose” Yorkshire

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35 Maternal Breeds Developed: Developed: –Chester Co Pennsylvania –Mid 1800’s from White hogs in the area Characteristics: Characteristics: –White body –More Bone “Rugged design compared to other mother breeds” Noted For: Noted For: –Maternal characteristics –Durability –Meat quality Chester White

36 White Breeds Chester White- white with drooping ears Chester White- white with drooping ears origin - Chester and Delaware counties of Pennsylvannia origin - Chester and Delaware counties of Pennsylvannia excellent mothering ability, prolific, and adapt well excellent mothering ability, prolific, and adapt well

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39 White Breeds American Landrace- white long bodied, level topped, straight snout and lop ears American Landrace- white long bodied, level topped, straight snout and lop ears origin- Denmark origin- Denmark Very prolific and may have 16 to 17 pairs of ribs (normal is 13) Very prolific and may have 16 to 17 pairs of ribs (normal is 13) may have black spots or freckles may have black spots or freckles

40 Mother Breeds Developed: Developed: –From Danish Landrace –1930’s imported Characteristics: Characteristics: –White with Big Droopy ears –Fine boned –Distinctively long bodied Noted For: Noted For: Most Prolific Breed Most Prolific Breed Largest litter size Largest litter size Landrace

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42 Other Breeds Hereford Hereford Tammworth Tammworth OIC - Ohio Improved Chester OIC - Ohio Improved Chester Many hybrids for commercial breeding Many hybrids for commercial breeding

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44 Cross Breeding Developed: Developed: –To improve the hog being developed by utilizing the positives from the breeds selected –Greater performance and growth rates from increased hybrid vigor Crossbreeding

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46 Developing F 1 crosses Hampshire Yorkshire

47 Developing F 1 crosses Hampshire Duroc H D Terminal Boars

48 Maternal Line Terminal Line


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