2INJURIES Injury is one of our nation’s most important health problems. Most of us will have a significant injury at some time in our lives.Many injuries are preventable.
3INJURIES FIVE LEADING CAUSES Motor vehicle accidents Falls Poisoning DrowningChoking
4INJURIESWith any serious injury or illness, shock is likely to develop.Develops when the circulatory system fails to deliver blood to all parts of the body.Has a tendency to progressively get worse.IS life-threatening.CAN NOT be managed by first aid alone.
5INJURIES SIGNALS OF SHOCK RESTLESSNESS OR IRRITABILITY ALTERED CONSCIOUSNESSNAUSEAPALE OR ASHEN, COOL, MOIST SKINRAPID BREATHINGRAPID PULSE.
6INJURIES CARE FOR SHOCK Have the victim to lie down. This is often the most comfortable position.Help the victim to rest comfortably as pain can intensify or accelerated the progression of shock.Call 911.Control any external bleeding
7INJURIES CARE FOR SHOCK Elevate the legs about 12 inches if you don’t suspect broken bones. If unsure, leave lying flat.Help the victim to maintain normal body temperature.DO NOT give anything to eat or drink, even though they may be thirsty.Reassure the victim.
8WOUNDS 1. BRUISE contusion Damage to the soft tissue and blood vessels causing bleeding under the skin.At first it may appear red.Over time it may turn dark red or purple.A large or painful bruise may be a signal of severe damage to deep tissues
9WOUNDS 2. SCRAPE abrasion, rug burn, road rash Most common type of wound.Caused by skin that has been rubbed or scraped away.Usually painful because scraping of the outer layer of skin exposes nerve endings.Dirt and other matter can easily become ground into the wound.Can easily become infected if not kept clean.
10WOUNDS 3. CUT incision; laceration Either jagged or smooth edges. Commonly caused by sharp objects such as knives, scissors, or broken glass.Deep cuts can damage nerves, large blood vessels and other soft tissues.Deep cuts usually bleed freely.May or may not be painful.
11WOUNDS4. AVULSIONA cut in which a portion of the skin or other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away.A partially avulsed piece of skin may remain but hangs like a flap.Often damages deeper tissues, bleeding is often significant.
12WOUNDS5. PUNCTUREA wound caused when a pointed object, such as a nail, piece of glass or knife pierces the skin.A gunshot wound is also a puncture wound.Because they do not bleed a lot, they can easily become infected.Bleeding can be severe if involves major vessel.An object that remains embedded is called an impaled object.
13WOUNDSCaring for wounds, especially open wounds, often involves controlling bleeding.Bleeding can occur both internally or externally, and a wound can be open or closed.Most bleeding will stop by itself in a relatively short time.
14Signals Of Internal Bleeding Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body such as the abdomen.Rapid, weak pulse.Skin that feels cool or moist or looks pale or bluish.Vomiting or coughing up blood.Excessive thirst.Becoming confused, faint, drowsy or unconscious.
15Caring for Major Open Wounds Control bleeding by placing a clean covering, dressing, over the wound and apply pressure.Apply a bandage snugly over the dressing.If bleeding cannot be controlled, put another bandage snugly over the dressing.Call your emergency number.Maintain direct pressure until help arrives.Wash your hands immediately after giving care.
16Wounds That Need Stitches Bleeding from an artery or uncontrolled bleeding.Wounds that show muscle or bone, involve joints, gape widely, or involve hands or feet.Large or deep puncture wounds.Large or deeply embedded objects.Human or animal bites.Wounds that, if left unattended, could leave conspicuous scars, such as on the face.
18SPECIAL SITUATIONS IMPALED OBJECT DO NOT remove Bandage bulky dressings around the object to support it in place.
19SPECIAL SITUATIONS AMPUTATED PART Wrap severed part in sterile gauze Put it in a plastic bagPlace bag on iceMake sure the part is taken to the hospital with the victim.
20SPECIAL SITUATIONS NOSE BLEED Direct pressure Elevate Have the victim lean forwardPinch the nostrils together until bleeding stops.
21SPECIAL SITUATIONS INSIDE CHEEK OUTSIDE CHEEK Place folded dressing inside the mouth against the wound.OUTSIDE CHEEKUse dressings to apply pressure directly to the wound and bandage so as not to restrict breathing.
23SPECIAL SITUATIONS TOOTH PLACE A STERILE DRESSING DIRECTLY IN THE SPACE LEFT BY THE TOOTH.TELL THE VICTIM TO BITE DOWN.PLACE TOOTH IN MILK OR WATER AND TAKE WITH VICTIM.
24BURNS Burns are caused by: HEATCHEMICALSELECTRICITYRADIATIONA critical burn can be life threatening and needs immediate medical attention.
25TYPES OF BURNS SUPERFICIAL first degree Involves only the top layer of skin.The skin is red and dry and the burn is usually painful.The area may swell.Most sunburns are superficial burnsUsually heal in 5-6 days without scaring.
26TYPES OF BURNS PARTIAL THICKNESS second degree Involves the top layers of skin.Skin is red and has blisters that may open and seep clear fluid making the skin appear wet.The burned skin may appear mottled.Usually painful and the area swollen.The burn heals in 3-4 weeksScarring may occur.
27TYPES OF BURNS FULL THICKNESS third degree Destroys all layers of skin and any or all of the underlying structures – fat, muscle, bones, etc.Look brown or black (charred) with the tissues underneath sometimes appearing white.Can be extremely painful or relatively painless if the burn destroys the nerve endings.
28CRITICAL BURNS Burns involving trouble breathing. Burns covering more than one body part.Burns to the head, neck, hands, feet or genitals.Burns (other than a very minor one) to a child or an elderly person.Burns resulting from chemicals, explosions, or electricity.
29CARE FOR BURNS Stop The Burning. Care First. Put out the flames or remove from source.Care First.For a serious burn, have someone call 911 or local emergency number.If alone, provide two minutes of care, then make the call
30CARE FOR BURNS Cool The Burn Cover the Burn Use large amounts of cool water.DO NOT USE ice or ice waterUse whatever sources area availableGarden hoseWash basinCover the BurnUse dry, sterile dressings or clean cloth.Loosely bandage in place.Prevents infection.
31Do’s & Don’ts of Burn Care Apply ice directly to any burn unless very minor.Touch a burn with anything except a clean covering.Remove pieces of cloth that stick to a burn.Don’t break blisters.Don’t use any ointment on a severe burn.DOCool a burn by flushing with waterCover with dry, clean covering.Do keep he victim comfortableDo keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated
32BURNSDry chemicals causing burns should be brushed off the skin with a gloved hand, being careful not to get the chemical on yourself or the victim, until EMS arrives.Never go near a victim of an electrical burn until you are sure the victim is not still in contact with the power source.
33Injuries to Muscles, Bones, & Joints When a serious injury occurs, it is best NOT to move the victim.If you have to move or transport the victim, you should splint the injured part first.By applying a splint, you can help minimize movement and prevent further injury.
36Injuries to Head, Neck and Back When to suspect Head, Neck and Back InjuriesA fall from a height greater the that of victim’s.A fall by any elderly person.Any diving mishap.A person found unconscious for unknown reason.Any motor vehicle accident involving a driver or passenger where severe blunt force to the head or chest, abdomen or pelvic area is possible.
37Injuries to Head, Neck and Back When to suspect Head, Neck and Back InjuriesAny injury that penetrates the head or chest, abdomen or pelvic area, such as a gunshot wound.Any person thrown from a motor vehicle.Any injury in which a victim’s helmet is broken (motorcycle, bicycle, football or industrial)An accident involving a lightning strike or other accident where victim is thrown.
38Injuries to Head, Neck and Back Signals of Head, Neck or Back injuriesChange in consciousness.Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck or back.Tingling or loss of sensation in the hands, fingers, feet and toes.Partial or complete loss of movement of any body part.Unusual bumps or depressions on the head or over the spine.Blood or other fluids in the ears or nose.
39Injuries to Head, Neck and Back Signals of Head, Neck or Back injuriesHeavy external bleeding of the head, neck or back.Seizures.Impaired breathing or vision as a result of an injury.Nausea or vomiting.Persistent headache.Loss of balance.Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears.
40General Care for Head, Neck or Back Injuries Minimize movement of the head, neck and back.Maintain an open airway.Check consciousness and breathing.Control any external bleeding.Keep victim from getting chilled or overheated.
41SUDDEN ILLNESSESAlthough there are many different types of sudden illness, they often have similar signalsYou will rarely know the exact cause of the sudden illness, but this should not keep you from providing the proper initial care.There is a list of signals of many sudden illnesses.
42Signals of Sudden Illness Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, confused, or weak.Changes in skin color (pale, ashen or flushed) or sweating.Nausea or vomiting.Diarrhea.Change in consciousness.Seizures.Paralysis or inability to move.Slurred speech.Difficulty seeing.Severe headache.Trouble breathing.Persistent pressure or pain.
43Care for Sudden Illness CHECK, CALL, CARECare for any life-threatening conditions first.Help the victim rest comfortably.Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.Reassure the victim.Watch for changes in consciousness and breathing.Do not give anything to eat or drink unless FULLY conscious.Call EMS if needed.
44Care for Sudden Illness CALL EMS IF THE VICTIMIs unconscious, unusually confused or seems to be losing consciousness.Has trouble breathing or is breathing in a strange way.Has persistent chest discomfort or pressure.Has pressure or discomfort in the abdomen that does not go away.Is vomiting or passing blood.
45Care for Sudden Illness CALL EMS IF THE VICTIMHas a seizure lasing more than 5 minutes or has multiple seizures.Has a seizure and is pregnant or is diabetic.Has a severe headache or slurred speech.Has injuries to the head, neck or back.Appears to have been poisoned.
46Care for Sudden Illness VOMITSPLACE HIM OR HER ON THE SIDE SO THAT YOU CAN CLEAR THE MOUTH.DO A FINGER SWEEP AND CLEAR THE MOUTH.PLACE IN RECOVERY POSITION OR POSITION FOR PROPER CARE.
47Care for Sudden Illness FAINTSPOSITION HIM OR HER ON THE BACK AND ELEVATE THE LEGS 8-10 INCHES IF YOU DO NOT SUSPECT A HEAD, NECK OR BACK INJURY.
48Care for Sudden Illness DIABETIC EMERGENCYHIGH BLOOD SUGAR, hyperglycemia.LOW BLOOD SUGAR, hypoglycemia.Give the conscious victim some type of sugar, preferably in liquid form, such as orange or apple juice, non-diet soda or 2-3 teaspoons of sugar dissolved in a glass of water.
49Care for Sudden Illness SIGNALS OF DIABETIC EMERGENCYCHANGES IN THE LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS.RAPID BREATHING AND PULSE.FEELING AND LOOKING ILLWEAKNESS AND FATIGUE.FOR MORE INFO, CALL DIABETES
50Care for Sudden Illness SEIZURESDO NOT hold or restrain the person.DO NOT place anything in the mouth.Remove nearby objects that might cause injury.Cushion the victims head using a folded cloth, towel or pillow.Watch for vomiting or breathing trouble after seizure.
51Care for Sudden Illness SEVERE ALLERGIC REACTIONAssist the victim with his or her medication which may be available as a single-dose epinephrine pen.Monitor breathing. (May become difficult or stop)Call EMSAct quickly.
52Care for Sudden Illness POISONINGFOUR WAYSIngestionInhalationAbsorptionInjectionPOISON CONTROL CENTER
53Care for Sudden Illness POISONINGIf you think someone has been poisoned, call your poison control center (phone book) or local emergency numberDo not give syrup of ipecac or activated charcoal to a poisoned victim unless directed to do so by the PCC or EMS dispatcher.
54INSECT BITES SIGNALS CARE STINGER MAY BE PRESENT PAIN SWELLING POSSIBLE ALLERGIC REACTIONHIVES, SWELLING, TROUBLE BREATHINGCAREREMOVE STINGER –SCRAPE AWAY.WASH WOUND.COVERAPPLY COLD PACKWATCH FOR SIGNALS OF ALLERGIC REACTION.
55SNAKE BITES SIGNALS CARE BITE MARK PAIN SWELLING BRUISING WASH WOUND KEEP BITTEN PART STILL, ANDLOWER THAN THE HEART.CALL LOCAL EMERGENCY NUMBERWATCH FOR LIFE-THREATENING CONDITIONS.
56ANIMAL BITES SIGNALS CARE BITE MARK BLEEDING IF BLEEDING IS MINOR, WASH WOUND.CONTROL BLEEDINGCOVERGET MEDICAL ATTENTIONCALL ANIMAL CONTROLDO NOT ATTEMPT TO CONTAIN ANIMAL.
57HEAT RELATED ILLNESSONCE SIGNALS APPEAR, CONDITION CAN WORSEN QUICKLY.HEAT RELATED ILNESSESHEAT CRAMPSHEAT EXAUSTIONHEAT STROKEALL ARE A CONTINUUM
58Signals of Heat Related Illness HEAT CRAMPSCramps or painful muscle contractions in legs, hands or abdomenHEAT EXHAUSTIONCool moist, pale, ashen or flushed skinHeadacheNauseaDizzinessWeaknessExhaustion
59Signals of Heat Related Illness HEAT STROKELIFE THREATENINGRED SKIN THAT IS EITHER DRY OR MOIST.RAPID, WEAK PULSECHANGE IN CONSCIOUSNESSRAPID, SHALLOW BREATHING
60Signal of Heat Related Illness When you recognize in early stages, you can reverse it.A continuum and is hard to distinguish distinct stages.Refusing water, vomiting and change in consciousness mean that the victim’s condition is getting worse.
61Care for Heat Related Illness Move to cooler environment.Give cool water to drink - Sip (only if FULLY conscious)Lightly massage or stretch muscle for heat crampsLoosen or remove clothingFan the victimGet the victim to circulating air while applying water with a cloth or sponge.
62Care for Heat Related Illness If the victim is conscious, give small amounts of cool water to drink.If the victim’s condition does not improve or if you suspect heat stroke, call 911 or the local emergency number.Give care and monitor for life-threatening conditions until help arrives.
63Cold Related Illness Hypothermia Frostbite SHIVERING NUMBNESS GLASSY STAREAPATHYLOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESSFrostbiteLoss of feeling in affected areaSkin that appears waxyCold to touch or is discolored (flush, white, yellow or blue)
64Care for Cold Related Illness HYPOTHERMIAGently move the victim to a warm place.Check ABC’s and care for shock.Remove wet clothing and cover with blanket or plastic sheetingCarefully monitor use of heating sourcesWarm the victim slowly and handle carefully.FROSTBITERemove wet clothing and jewelry from the affected area.Soak the frostbitten part in warm water.Cover with dry, sterile dressings.DO NOT rub the frostbitten area.Check ABC’s and care for shock.