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AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID BASICS. INJURIES Injury is one of our nation’s most important health problems. Most of us will have a significant injury.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID BASICS. INJURIES Injury is one of our nation’s most important health problems. Most of us will have a significant injury."— Presentation transcript:

1 AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID BASICS

2 INJURIES Injury is one of our nation’s most important health problems. Most of us will have a significant injury at some time in our lives. Many injuries are preventable.

3 INJURIES FIVE LEADING CAUSES –Motor vehicle accidents –Falls –Poisoning –Drowning –Choking

4 INJURIES With any serious injury or illness, shock is likely to develop. Develops when the circulatory system fails to deliver blood to all parts of the body. Has a tendency to progressively get worse. IS life-threatening. CAN NOT be managed by first aid alone.

5 INJURIES SIGNALS OF SHOCK –RESTLESSNESS OR IRRITABILITY –ALTERED CONSCIOUSNESS –NAUSEA –PALE OR ASHEN, COOL, MOIST SKIN –RAPID BREATHING –RAPID PULSE.

6 INJURIES CARE FOR SHOCK –Have the victim to lie down. This is often the most comfortable position. –Help the victim to rest comfortably as pain can intensify or accelerated the progression of shock. –Call 911. –Control any external bleeding

7 INJURIES CARE FOR SHOCK –Elevate the legs about 12 inches if you don’t suspect broken bones. If unsure, leave lying flat. –Help the victim to maintain normal body temperature. –DO NOT give anything to eat or drink, even though they may be thirsty. –Reassure the victim.

8 WOUNDS 1. BRUISE contusion –Damage to the soft tissue and blood vessels causing bleeding under the skin. –At first it may appear red. –Over time it may turn dark red or purple. –A large or painful bruise may be a signal of severe damage to deep tissues

9 WOUNDS 2. SCRAPE abrasion, rug burn, road rash –Most common type of wound. –Caused by skin that has been rubbed or scraped away. –Usually painful because scraping of the outer layer of skin exposes nerve endings. –Dirt and other matter can easily become ground into the wound. –Can easily become infected if not kept clean.

10 WOUNDS 3. CUT incision; laceration –Either jagged or smooth edges. –Commonly caused by sharp objects such as knives, scissors, or broken glass. –Deep cuts can damage nerves, large blood vessels and other soft tissues. –Deep cuts usually bleed freely. –May or may not be painful.

11 WOUNDS 4. AVULSION –A cut in which a portion of the skin or other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away. –A partially avulsed piece of skin may remain but hangs like a flap. –Often damages deeper tissues, bleeding is often significant.

12 WOUNDS 5. PUNCTURE –A wound caused when a pointed object, such as a nail, piece of glass or knife pierces the skin. –A gunshot wound is also a puncture wound. –Because they do not bleed a lot, they can easily become infected. –Bleeding can be severe if involves major vessel. –An object that remains embedded is called an impaled object.

13 WOUNDS Caring for wounds, especially open wounds, often involves controlling bleeding. Bleeding can occur both internally or externally, and a wound can be open or closed. Most bleeding will stop by itself in a relatively short time.

14 Signals Of Internal Bleeding Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body such as the abdomen. Rapid, weak pulse. Skin that feels cool or moist or looks pale or bluish. Vomiting or coughing up blood. Excessive thirst. Becoming confused, faint, drowsy or unconscious.

15 Caring for Major Open Wounds Control bleeding by placing a clean covering, dressing, over the wound and apply pressure. Apply a bandage snugly over the dressing. If bleeding cannot be controlled, put another bandage snugly over the dressing. Call your emergency number. Maintain direct pressure until help arrives. Wash your hands immediately after giving care.

16 Wounds That Need Stitches Bleeding from an artery or uncontrolled bleeding. Wounds that show muscle or bone, involve joints, gape widely, or involve hands or feet. Large or deep puncture wounds. Large or deeply embedded objects. Human or animal bites. Wounds that, if left unattended, could leave conspicuous scars, such as on the face.

17 Controlling Bleeding

18 SPECIAL SITUATIONS IMPALED OBJECT –DO NOT remove –Bandage bulky dressings around the object to support it in place.

19 SPECIAL SITUATIONS AMPUTATED PART –Wrap severed part in sterile gauze –Put it in a plastic bag –Place bag on ice –Make sure the part is taken to the hospital with the victim.

20 SPECIAL SITUATIONS NOSE BLEED –Direct pressure –Elevate –Have the victim lean forward –Pinch the nostrils together until bleeding stops.

21 SPECIAL SITUATIONS INSIDE CHEEK –Place folded dressing inside the mouth against the wound. OUTSIDE CHEEK –Use dressings to apply pressure directly to the wound and bandage so as not to restrict breathing.

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23 SPECIAL SITUATIONS TOOTH –PLACE A STERILE DRESSING DIRECTLY IN THE SPACE LEFT BY THE TOOTH. –TELL THE VICTIM TO BITE DOWN. –PLACE TOOTH IN MILK OR WATER AND TAKE WITH VICTIM.

24 BURNS Burns are caused by: –HEAT –CHEMICALS –ELECTRICITY –RADIATION A critical burn can be life threatening and needs immediate medical attention.

25 TYPES OF BURNS SUPERFICIAL first degree –Involves only the top layer of skin. –The skin is red and dry and the burn is usually painful. –The area may swell. –Most sunburns are superficial burns –Usually heal in 5-6 days without scaring.

26 TYPES OF BURNS PARTIAL THICKNESS second degree –Involves the top layers of skin. –Skin is red and has blisters that may open and seep clear fluid making the skin appear wet. –The burned skin may appear mottled. –Usually painful and the area swollen. –The burn heals in 3-4 weeks –Scarring may occur.

27 TYPES OF BURNS FULL THICKNESS third degree –Destroys all layers of skin and any or all of the underlying structures – fat, muscle, bones, etc. –Look brown or black (charred) with the tissues underneath sometimes appearing white. –Can be extremely painful or relatively painless if the burn destroys the nerve endings.

28 CRITICAL BURNS Burns involving trouble breathing. Burns covering more than one body part. Burns to the head, neck, hands, feet or genitals. Burns (other than a very minor one) to a child or an elderly person. Burns resulting from chemicals, explosions, or electricity.

29 CARE FOR BURNS Stop The Burning. –Put out the flames or remove from source. Care First. –For a serious burn, have someone call 911 or local emergency number. –If alone, provide two minutes of care, then make the call

30 CARE FOR BURNS Cool The Burn –Use large amounts of cool water. –DO NOT USE ice or ice water –Use whatever sources area available Garden hose Wash basin Cover the Burn –Use dry, sterile dressings or clean cloth. –Loosely bandage in place. –Prevents infection.

31 Do’s & Don’ts of Burn Care DO –Cool a burn by flushing with water –Cover with dry, clean covering. –Do keep he victim comfortable –Do keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated DON’T –Apply ice directly to any burn unless very minor. –Touch a burn with anything except a clean covering. –Remove pieces of cloth that stick to a burn. –Don’t break blisters. –Don’t use any ointment on a severe burn.

32 BURNS Dry chemicals causing burns should be brushed off the skin with a gloved hand, being careful not to get the chemical on yourself or the victim, until EMS arrives. Never go near a victim of an electrical burn until you are sure the victim is not still in contact with the power source.

33 Injuries to Muscles, Bones, & Joints When a serious injury occurs, it is best NOT to move the victim. If you have to move or transport the victim, you should splint the injured part first. By applying a splint, you can help minimize movement and prevent further injury.

34 Injuries to Muscles, Bones, & Joints

35 5 MINUTE BREAK

36 Injuries to Head, Neck and Back When to suspect Head, Neck and Back Injuries –A fall from a height greater the that of victim’s. –A fall by any elderly person. –Any diving mishap. –A person found unconscious for unknown reason. –Any motor vehicle accident involving a driver or passenger where severe blunt force to the head or chest, abdomen or pelvic area is possible.

37 Injuries to Head, Neck and Back When to suspect Head, Neck and Back Injuries –Any injury that penetrates the head or chest, abdomen or pelvic area, such as a gunshot wound. –Any person thrown from a motor vehicle. –Any injury in which a victim’s helmet is broken (motorcycle, bicycle, football or industrial) –An accident involving a lightning strike or other accident where victim is thrown.

38 Injuries to Head, Neck and Back Signals of Head, Neck or Back injuries –Change in consciousness. –Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck or back. –Tingling or loss of sensation in the hands, fingers, feet and toes. –Partial or complete loss of movement of any body part. –Unusual bumps or depressions on the head or over the spine. –Blood or other fluids in the ears or nose.

39 Injuries to Head, Neck and Back Signals of Head, Neck or Back injuries –Heavy external bleeding of the head, neck or back. –Seizures. –Impaired breathing or vision as a result of an injury. –Nausea or vomiting. –Persistent headache. –Loss of balance. –Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears.

40 General Care for Head, Neck or Back Injuries Minimize movement of the head, neck and back. Maintain an open airway. Check consciousness and breathing. Control any external bleeding. Keep victim from getting chilled or overheated.

41 SUDDEN ILLNESSES Although there are many different types of sudden illness, they often have similar signals You will rarely know the exact cause of the sudden illness, but this should not keep you from providing the proper initial care. There is a list of signals of many sudden illnesses.

42 Signals of Sudden Illness Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, confused, or weak. Changes in skin color (pale, ashen or flushed) or sweating. Nausea or vomiting. Diarrhea. Change in consciousness. Seizures. Paralysis or inability to move. Slurred speech. Difficulty seeing. Severe headache. Trouble breathing. Persistent pressure or pain.

43 Care for Sudden Illness CHECK, CALL, CARE Care for any life-threatening conditions first. Help the victim rest comfortably. Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated. Reassure the victim. Watch for changes in consciousness and breathing. Do not give anything to eat or drink unless FULLY conscious. Call EMS if needed.

44 Care for Sudden Illness CALL EMS IF THE VICTIM –Is unconscious, unusually confused or seems to be losing consciousness. –Has trouble breathing or is breathing in a strange way. –Has persistent chest discomfort or pressure. –Has pressure or discomfort in the abdomen that does not go away. –Is vomiting or passing blood.

45 Care for Sudden Illness CALL EMS IF THE VICTIM –Has a seizure lasing more than 5 minutes or has multiple seizures. –Has a seizure and is pregnant or is diabetic. –Has a severe headache or slurred speech. –Has injuries to the head, neck or back. –Appears to have been poisoned.

46 Care for Sudden Illness VOMITS –PLACE HIM OR HER ON THE SIDE SO THAT YOU CAN CLEAR THE MOUTH. –DO A FINGER SWEEP AND CLEAR THE MOUTH. –PLACE IN RECOVERY POSITION OR POSITION FOR PROPER CARE.

47 Care for Sudden Illness FAINTS –POSITION HIM OR HER ON THE BACK AND ELEVATE THE LEGS 8-10 INCHES IF YOU DO NOT SUSPECT A HEAD, NECK OR BACK INJURY.

48 Care for Sudden Illness DIABETIC EMERGENCY –HIGH BLOOD SUGAR, hyperglycemia. –LOW BLOOD SUGAR, hypoglycemia. –Give the conscious victim some type of sugar, preferably in liquid form, such as orange or apple juice, non-diet soda or 2-3 teaspoons of sugar dissolved in a glass of water.

49 Care for Sudden Illness SIGNALS OF DIABETIC EMERGENCY –CHANGES IN THE LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS. –RAPID BREATHING AND PULSE. –FEELING AND LOOKING ILL –WEAKNESS AND FATIGUE. –FOR MORE INFO, CALL DIABETES

50 Care for Sudden Illness SEIZURES –DO NOT hold or restrain the person. –DO NOT place anything in the mouth. –Remove nearby objects that might cause injury. –Cushion the victims head using a folded cloth, towel or pillow. –Watch for vomiting or breathing trouble after seizure.

51 Care for Sudden Illness SEVERE ALLERGIC REACTION –Assist the victim with his or her medication which may be available as a single-dose epinephrine pen. –Monitor breathing. (May become difficult or stop) –Call EMS –Act quickly.

52 Care for Sudden Illness POISONING –FOUR WAYS Ingestion Inhalation Absorption Injection –POISON CONTROL CENTER

53 Care for Sudden Illness POISONING –If you think someone has been poisoned, call your poison control center (phone book) or local emergency number –Do not give syrup of ipecac or activated charcoal to a poisoned victim unless directed to do so by the PCC or EMS dispatcher.

54 INSECT BITES SIGNALS –STINGER MAY BE PRESENT –PAIN –SWELLING –POSSIBLE ALLERGIC REACTION HIVES, SWELLING, TROUBLE BREATHING CARE –REMOVE STINGER – SCRAPE AWAY. –WASH WOUND. –COVER –APPLY COLD PACK –WATCH FOR SIGNALS OF ALLERGIC REACTION.

55 SNAKE BITES SIGNALS –BITE MARK –PAIN –SWELLING –BRUISING CARE –WASH WOUND –KEEP BITTEN PART STILL, ANDLOWER THAN THE HEART. –CALL LOCAL EMERGENCY NUMBER –WATCH FOR LIFE- THREATENING CONDITIONS.

56 ANIMAL BITES SIGNALS –BITE MARK –BLEEDING CARE –IF BLEEDING IS MINOR, WASH WOUND. –CONTROL BLEEDING –COVER –GET MEDICAL ATTENTION –CALL ANIMAL CONTROL –DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CONTAIN ANIMAL.

57 HEAT RELATED ILLNESS ONCE SIGNALS APPEAR, CONDITION CAN WORSEN QUICKLY. HEAT RELATED ILNESSES –HEAT CRAMPS –HEAT EXAUSTION –HEAT STROKE –ALL ARE A CONTINUUM

58 Signals of Heat Related Illness HEAT CRAMPS –Cramps or painful muscle contractions in legs, hands or abdomen HEAT EXHAUSTION –Cool moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin –Headache –Nausea –Dizziness –Weakness –Exhaustion

59 Signals of Heat Related Illness HEAT STROKE –LIFE THREATENING –RED SKIN THAT IS EITHER DRY OR MOIST. –RAPID, WEAK PULSE –CHANGE IN CONSCIOUSNESS –RAPID, SHALLOW BREATHING

60 Signal of Heat Related Illness When you recognize in early stages, you can reverse it. A continuum and is hard to distinguish distinct stages. Refusing water, vomiting and change in consciousness mean that the victim’s condition is getting worse.

61 Care for Heat Related Illness Move to cooler environment. Give cool water to drink - Sip (only if FULLY conscious) Lightly massage or stretch muscle for heat cramps Loosen or remove clothing Fan the victim Get the victim to circulating air while applying water with a cloth or sponge.

62 Care for Heat Related Illness If the victim is conscious, give small amounts of cool water to drink. If the victim’s condition does not improve or if you suspect heat stroke, call 911 or the local emergency number. Give care and monitor for life-threatening conditions until help arrives.

63 Cold Related Illness Hypothermia –SHIVERING –NUMBNESS –GLASSY STARE –APATHY –LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS Frostbite –Loss of feeling in affected area –Skin that appears waxy –Cold to touch or is discolored (flush, white, yellow or blue)

64 Care for Cold Related Illness HYPOTHERMIA –Gently move the victim to a warm place. –Check ABC’s and care for shock. –Remove wet clothing and cover with blanket or plastic sheeting –Carefully monitor use of heating sources –Warm the victim slowly and handle carefully. FROSTBITE –Remove wet clothing and jewelry from the affected area. –Soak the frostbitten part in warm water. –Cover with dry, sterile dressings. –DO NOT rub the frostbitten area. –Check ABC’s and care for shock.

65 QUESTIONS ?

66 EXAMINATION


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