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Chapter 35 Lesson 1 Providing first Aid

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1 Chapter 35 Lesson 1 Providing first Aid
First Aid – The immediate, temporary care given to a person who has become sick or who has been injured First aid is administered in the second and minutes following and accident or a person’s becoming sick Administering first aid until the proper authority arrives on the scene can mean the difference of life and death

2 Priorities in an Emergency
The first five minutes of an emergency situation are the most critical It is important to remain calm and to keep these six priorities and keep 6 priorities in mind

3 6 Priorities in an Emergency
1. Check the immediate surroundings for possible dangers Move the victim only if their life is threatened 2. Check to see if the victim is conscious If not call for ambulance at once

4 6 Priorities in an Emergency
3. Check breathing – be sure victim has an open airway. If not – attempt to clear airway Then administer rescue breathing if necessary

5 6 Priorities in an Emergency
4. Control severe bleeding – If blood is bright red and spurting, an artery has been damaged Apply direct pressure to the wound Use gloves or protective barrier to avoid spread of infectious diseases

6 6 Priorities in an Emergency
5. Check victim for poisoning – Any substance solid, liquid or gas that causes injury, illness or death 6. Send for medical help – Call 911 or send someone to call 911

7 Secondary Emergency Measures
Once you have taken steps to ensure the victim’s safety and have administered life support procedures, you should attend to the following secondary measures

8 Secondary Emergency Measures
Learn as much as you can about what happened, and devise a plan of action Look after the victim’s continued safety and comfort Keep the victim still and in the position most suited to his or her injury or condition

9 Secondary Emergency Measures
Make sure victim maintains normal body temperature Provide blankets or coat for warmth, or provide shade for cooling protection from the sun Loosen tight or binding clothing. Take care not to jar the victims neck or spine

10 Types of Emergencies There are many types of emergencies
Some are minor while others are can be life threatening

11 Open wounds Abrasions – scrapes, damages the outer layers of skin
Accompanied by little or no bleeding, but may become easily infected

12 Open wounds Laceration – cut is generally caused by a sharp object such as a knife or broken glass, or a hard blow from a blunt object May have jagged or smooth edges Usually accompanied by bleeding Deep cuts can result in heavy bleeding and damage to nerves, blood vessels and soft tissue

13 Open wounds Puncture – wound caused by a pin, splinter or other pointed object piercing the skin Although external bleeding is usually limited, puncture wounds carry the potential for internal bleeding and damage to internal organs Risk of infection becomes greater when the object remains in skin

14 Open wounds Avulsion – When tissue is separated partly or completely from a person’s body Often occur in auto accidents and from animal bites Body part should be sent to the hospital with the victim in case it can be reattached

15 First Aid for Open Wounds
1.Stop the bleeding – direct pressure using heel of hand either directly on wound or a pressure point along the artery supplying the blood 2. Protect the wound – Clean cloth over an open wound will help protect it from infection

16 Open wounds 3. Treat for shock – can result from severe bleeding, heart attack or electrocution, poisoning, or sudden change in temperature Symptoms of shock – confusion, slower or faster pulse, trembling, weakness in arms, legs, pale or clammy skin, pale or bluish lips, and fingernails, and enlarged pupils - keep lying down, feet elevated and maintain body temperature – never give food or drink

17 Open wounds 4. Get Help – see to it the victim gets immediate medical attention Send someone for help If you are alone leave the victim only after you have performed first aid and feel that you have lessened the risk of further injury or death Find out victims blood type if possible make sure you know your own

18 Blood Types TYPE A TYPE B
TYPE AB – Universal recipient because can receive all other types TYPE O – Universal donor because can give to all other types

19 Blood types RH factor – the + or – in the blood
A protein in the blood of some 85% of the U.S. population – Rh+ Individuals with Rh negative blood – blood that does not have the factor should not be given Rh positive blood

20 Severe Burns First Degree – These are superficial burns, like most sunburns, and involve, the top layer of skin Healing takes 3-5 days 2nd Degree – second degree burns involve the top several layers of skin Skin will have blisters, and appear blotchy Healing takes 3-4 weeks

21 Severe Burns 3rd degree – The most severe burns, destroy all layers of skin as well as nerves, muscles, fat and bones Burns look black and brown

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