Presentation on theme: "Community First Aid & Safety"— Presentation transcript:
1 Community First Aid & Safety Cuts, Scrapes, & BruisesCommunity First Aid & Safety
2 Cuts, Scrapes, & Bruises Blood- 60,000 miles of blood vessels Heart ArteriesVeinsCapillaries
3 Bleeding occurs when a blood vessel is torn Most bleeding will usually stop by itself with in a few minutesSevere bleeding can occur at the skin’s surface or below it
4 Stitches Uncontrollable bleeding Wounds that show muscle, bones, jointsLarge and deep puncture woundsEmbedded objectsHuman / animal bitesNeeded when edges of skin do not fall together or when a wound is over an inch long
7 Contusion (Bruise)Damage to soft tissues & blood vessels causes bleeding under the skinAt first it may appear redTurn purple
8 Scrape (abrasion)Most common type of wound caused by skin that has been rubbed or scrapped awayUsually painful because scraping away of outer skin exposes nerve endings
9 Incision (cut / laceration) May be jagged or smooth edgesCommonly caused by sharp objectsCan also be caused by a blow from a blunt object
10 AvulsionA cut in which a portion of the skin or other soft tissue is partially / completely torn awayMay hang like a flapSevered (finger)
11 PunctureCaused when a pointed object pieces the skin (nail, tack, bullet)An object that remains embedded in the wound is called an impaled object
12 Signs of Infection Swollen / redness Warm / throb / pain Pus discharge Fever, feel illRed streaksThe best initial defense against infection is to clean the areaSoap (anti-bacterial) & waterTetanus (5-10 years)
13 Care for Infection Antibiotic ointment (Neosporin) Soak in warm water ElevateChange coveringsIf persists or worsens- seek a physician
15 Caring for Soft Tissue Injuries Closed Wound (internal injuries)Apply something cold to control swellingSignals of Internal BleedingTender, swollen, bruisedRapid / weak pulseSkin (cool, moist, pale, bluish)Vomiting / coughing up bloodExcessive thirstConfused, faint, drowsy or unconsciousSteps to Take: Where there is severe bleeding from an artery, always control it by direct pressure and elevation, and then, only if necessary, at a pressure point, and only as a last resort use a tourniquet. If a limb is involved, elevation will help to control bleeding. Carefully cut or tear the clothing so that the injury may be seen. If loose foreign particles are around the wound, wipe them away with clean material. Always wipe away from the wound, not toward it. Do not attempt to remove a foreign object embedded in the wound, since it may aid the doctor in determining the extent of the injury. Serious bleeding and other damage may occur if the object is removed. Stabilize the object with a bulky dressing. Leave the work of cleansing the wound to the doctor. Do not touch the wound with your hands, clothing, or anything that is not clean, if possible, and do not pour water or any other liquid into or on the wound. Immobilize the injured part, and keep the patient quiet. Place a bandage compress or dressing over the wound, and tie it in place. All dressings should be wide enough to completely cover the wound and· the area around it. The dressing and bandage should be applied firmly and snugly, but should not be so tight as to affect the blood supply to the injured part. The bandage should be securely tied or fastened in place so that it will not move. There should be no loose ends that could get caught on any other object while the patient is being moved. Protect all bandages, compresses, or gauze dressings by an outer bandage made from a roller or triangular bandage, except dressings for wounds of the eye, nose, chin, finger, and toe, or compound (open) fractures of the hand and foot when splints are applied. If a bandage is used, open it enough to cover the entire dressing. Unless otherwise specified, tie the knots of the bandage compress and cover bandage over the wound on top of the compress pad to help in checking the bleeding. Preserve all avulsed parts. Calm and reassure the patient.
16 Caring for an Open Wound Control bleeding (sterile dressing-direct pressure)Raise / elevate above heart (if no broken bone is suspected)Apply bandage snugly over dressing (if bleeding does not stop apply additional dressing)If bleeding cannot be controlled, put pressure to supplying artery
17 Continued Call EMS Care for shock Wash hands after care Shock usually follows wounds, especially if much blood is lost. Give emergency care promptly, and administer oxygen.
18 Shock Shock is likely to develop in any serious injury / illness Life-threatening condition in which the circulatory system fails to deliver blood to all parts of the bodyBlood flows to most important organs (heart, lungs, brain)can lead to death
20 Caring for ShockHave victim lie down, elevate legs about 12” (unless you suspect head, neck, back injuries)Call 9-1-1Control any external bleedingHelp victim maintain body temperatureDo not give food or drinkReassure victim
23 Severed Body Part Wrap the part completely in gauze or a clean towel. Wet the towel with cool water.Place the wrapped body part in a plastic bag & seal it shut.Place the sealed bag in to another bag or bucket filled with ice.Take the bag with the amputated body part to the hospital with the victim.
25 Embedded Objects Do not remove it Place several objects around object to support itEye-cover both eyes
26 Organs that Break Through the Abdomen Carefully remove clothing from around the moveCover organs with a moist, sterile / clean dressingCover dressing with plastic wrapPlace a folded towel / cloth to keep warm