2WoundsSoft tissues are the layers of skin and the fat and muscle beneath the skin’s outer layer.Wounds are defined as:injury to the soft tissue of the body.
3Closed Wounds Closed wounds occur when: the body is hit and the force of the blow damages the soft tissue layers beneath the skin causing internal bleeding.This type of wound could be as simple as acontusion (bruise) or as severe as internal bleeding
4Signals of Internal Bleeding Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body such as the abdomenRapid, weak pulseSkin that feels cool or moist or look pale or bluishVomiting blood or coughing up bloodExcessive thirstAn injured extremity that is blue or extremely paleBecoming confused, drowsy, or unconscious
5Call if…A person complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part without pain.You think the force that caused the injury was great enough to cause serious damage.An injured extremity is blue or extremely pale.The person’s abdomen is tender and distended.The person is vomiting blood or coughing up blood.The person shows signs of shock.
6Care for Closed Wounds Help the person rest in a comfortable position Apply direct pressure on the areaApply ice early onElevate the injured area only if it will not cause more pain
7Open Wounds Open wounds occur when there is a break in the skin. The four main types of open wounds are –AbrasionsLacerationsAvulsionsPunctures
8Abrasions Most common type of open wound Caused by something rubbing roughly against the skinDoes not bleed very muchIt is usually painful because scrapes expose sensitive nerve endings
9Lacerations A cut in the skin commonly caused by a sharp object Deep lacerations can cut through fat and muscle, damaging both nerves and blood vesselsLaceration can become easily infected
10AvulsionsAn injury in which a portion of the skin and sometimes soft tissue is partially or completely torn awayBleeding is often significant
11Punctures Usually caused by a pointed object piercing the skin Do not bleed very much unless a blood vessel has been injuredCan carry germs deep into the bodyIf the object remains in the wound, it is called an embedded object
12Infection Care Signs & Symptoms Swollen and red Warm to the touch Injury will throb with painWound may discharge pusPerson may become feverish and illCareWash the area with soap and waterIrrigate with large amounts of fresh running waterDo not wash major open wounds
13Determining if the Person Needs Stitches The wound edges of the skin do not fall togetherThe laceration involves the faceThe wound is over ½ inch longBleeding from an artery or uncontrolled bleedingCan see muscle, bone, involve joints, hands or feetWounds from large or deeply embedded objectsWounds from human or animal bitesIf left unstitched, could leave conspicuous scars
14Materials used when caring for an open wound include - Disposable gloves – create a barrier between you and the victimDressings – pads placed directly on the wound to absorb blood and other fluids to prevent infectionOcclusive dressings – prevents the wound from being exposed to the air or waterBandages – material used to wrap or cover any part of the body, used to hold dressings in place
15General Guidelines Applying a Roller Bandage Check for feeling, warmth and color below the injury site before and after applying the bandage.Elevate the injury only if it doesn’t cause further injury.Do not cover fingers or toes with a bandage.Apply additional dressing if blood soaks through the first bandange.
16Applying an Elastic Bandage Check for circulation of the limb beyond where you will be placing the bandage.Place the end of the bandage against the skin and use overlapping turns.Gently stretch the bandage as you wrap.Check the snugness, a finger should easily pass under the bandage.
17Care for Minor Open Wounds Put on glovesApply direct pressure for a few minutes to control any bleedingWash the wound thoroughly with soap and waterApply an antibiotic ointmentCover the wound with a sterile dressing and a bandage
18Care for a Major Open Wound Call 9-1-1Put on glovesControl bleeding by –Covering the wound and pressing firmlyApply a pressure bandageAdding more bandages if necessaryMonitor life signsCare for shockWash hands immediately after giving care
19Using Tourniquets When Help is Delayed A tourniquet is a tight band placed around an arm or leg to constrict blood vessels in order to stop blood flow around the wound.Use only as a last resort.If used, a tourniquet should not be removed in until the victim gets to the hospital.
20Hemostatic AgentsSubstances that speed up clot formation by absorbing excess moisture caused by bleeding.Can be a treated sponge or gauze pad, powder or granular form.
21Burns Burns are a special kind of soft tissue injury Burns can be classified in two ways –The source of the burnHeatChemicalElectricityRadiationThe depth of the burnSuperficial (first degree)Partial Thickness (second degree)Full Thickness (third degree)
22Depth Classifications Top layer of skinRed, dry skinPain, swellingUsually heals within a weekTop layers of skinRed, painful, blisters that may open and weep clear fluidUsually heals in 3 to 4 weeksMay scarMay destroy layers of skin and underlying structuresCharred skin, tissue underneath white, painful or painlessHealing may require medical careScarring likely
23Critical BurnsCritical burns require immediate medical attention because they are potentially life threatening, disfiguring, and/or disabling.You should always call if the burned person –Has trouble breathing or suspected burned airwayHas burns covering more than one body partHas burns to the head, neck, hands, feet or genitalsHas a burn and is younger than 5 or older than 60Has burns resulting from chemicals, explosions, or electricity
24Caring for a Thermal Burn Check the sceneRemove the person from the source of the burnCheck for life threatening conditionsCool the burn with large amounts of cool running waterCover the burn looselyPrevent infectionMinimize shock
25Care for a Thermal Burn DO NOT – Apply ice or ice water Touch a burn with anything except a clean bandageRemove pieces of clothing that stick to the burnTry to clean a severe burnBreak blistersUse ointment on a severe burn
26Care for a Chemical Burn Important – chemical burns will continue to burn as long as the chemical is on the body.If the burn was caused by dry chemicals, brush off the chemical using gloved hands before flushing with water.Flush the burn with large amount of running water. Flush for at least 20 minutes.Eyes burns should be flushed with water until EMS arriveIf possible have the person remove contaminated clothes.
27Care for Electrical Burns Important – Never go near the victim until you are sure he or she is no longer in contact with the power source.Call 9-1-1Turn off the power sourceBe prepared to give CPR or use an AEDCare for shock and thermal burns
28Radiation (Sun) BurnsCare for sunburn the same way you would for any other burn.Always cool the burn and protect the area from further damage by keeping it out of the sun.
29Preventing Burns Follow safety practices that prevent fire Follow manufacturer’s guidelines when handling chemicalsFollow safety practices around electrical lines and go indoors when lightning could strikeWear appropriate clothing and use sunscreen
30Crush Injuries Call 9-1-1 Care for specific injuries found Assume that internal injuries are presentCare for shock
31Care for an Embedded Object Do not remove the object.Place several dressings around it to keep it from moving.Bandage around the object to keep it from moving.
32Sucking Chest WoundThis injury occurs when a puncture wound penetrates the chest cavity and air passes in and out of the wound.
33Care for a Sucking Chest Wound Cover the wound with a large occlusive dressing (closes the wound) and tape the dressing except for one side.The dressing will keep air from entering the wound when the person inhales and allow the air to escape when the person exhales.