Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 28: FIRST AID & EMERGENCIES. RESPONDING TO AN EMERGENCY 1.CHECK Check the scene Spilled chemicals Traffic Fire Escaping steam Downed power lines."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 28: FIRST AID & EMERGENCIES
RESPONDING TO AN EMERGENCY 1.CHECK Check the scene Spilled chemicals Traffic Fire Escaping steam Downed power lines Smoke Check the victim Determine number of victims Only move victim if immediate danger is evident 2.CALL Call local emergency number or 9-1-1 3.CARE Care for the victim Always care for life threatening emergencies first. Unconscious Not breathing or having trouble breathing Shows no signs of circulation (coughing or moving) Bleeding severerly
FIRST AID KIT Helps to control Bleeding Helps to clean wound & prevent infections Helps to stabilize bones/joints
FIRST AID KIT Helps with insect bites or poisonous plants Helps with blisters Helps with muscle cramps Helps with sun burn
FIRST AID KIT Helps with foreign objects in your eye or dryness Helps with pain Helps with allergic reactions Helps to control swelling
FIRST AID KIT Additional Supplies
TYPES OF BURNS First-degree BurnSecond-degree Burn Third-degree Burn
TYPES OF INJURIES AbrasionLaceration PunctureAvulsion
FIRST AID FOR SHOCK 1.Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number. 2.Control any external bleeding. 3.Elevate the legs about 12 inches, unless you suspect head or back injury or broken bones involving the legs or hips. If unsure, leave the victim laying flat. This helps the blood return to the heart. 4.Never give the victim anything to eat or drink. Eating or drinking could cause vomiting. 5.Reassure the victim.
FIRST AID FOR CHOKING 1.First ask, “Are you choking?” 2.If they can speak or are coughing, do not attempt first aid. Encourage them to keep coughing. 3.If they can not speak (Adult or Child) use abdominal thrust. Quick inward and upward pulls of the diaphragm 4.Infant – use back blows and chest thrust With infant resting on your forearm and head facing downward, give 5 back blows, then flip infant over and give 5 chest thrust. Look in mouth and if you can see object do a finger sweep. If not dislodged in 1 minute, call 9-1-1
MUSCLE CRAMPS 1.Stretch out the affected muscle to counteract the cramp. 2.Massage the cramped muscle firmly. 3.Apply moist heat to the area. 4.Get medical help if the cramp persists. STRAINS & SPRAINS 1.Rest Avoid movements and activities that cause pain. 2.Ice Reduces pain & swelling Ice for 20 minutes, Remove for 20 minutes, then reapply. 3.Compression Light pressure from wearing an elastic wrap or bandage. Wrap should be first, but not uncomfortable. 4.Elevation Raise the affected limb above the level of the heart.
FRACTURES & DISLOCATIONS 1.Keep the victim still and call 9-1-1 2.If victim must be moved, keep the fractured area immobilized by securing a splint to the body part with clean lengths of cloth. UNCONSCIOUSNESS 1.Check for breathing. 2.If not breathing, call 9-1-1. 3.If breathing, move victim into the recovery position.
FAINTING 1.If you feel faint: Lie down or sit down and place your head between your knees. 2.If someone else faints: Position the person on his or her back with legs elevated 8-12 inches above the heart unless you suspect head or back injury. Do not place a pillow under the person’s head. Sponge the person’s face with water. Do not splash water on the face. If the person vomits, quickly roll him or her into the recovery position. If person does not revive promptly, seek medical help.
CONCUSSION 1.Have a conscious victim lie down. 2.Do not move an unconscious victim, unless you do not suspect a neck or back injury. Move them into recovery position if no injury. 3.Use first aid for any bleeding. 4.Call 9-1-1 immediately. ANIMAL BITES 1.Wash the bite area with mild soap and warm water for five minutes to remove saliva and any other foreign matter. 2.Use direct pressure or pressure point bleeding control to stop any bleeding. 3.If the wound is swollen, apply ice wrapped in a towel for 10 minutes. 4.Cover the wound with a clean dressing or bandage.
NOSEBLEEDS 1.Keep person quiet. Walking, talking and blowing the nose may increase bleeding. 2.Tell person to breath through his/her mouth. 3.Have the person sit down and lean forward. Do not tilt the person’s head back! 4.Press on the bleeding nostril. 5.Maintain pressure for 15 minutes. 6.If bleeding continues, seek medical help. OBJECT IN EYE 1.Encourage victim to not rub eye, but to blink several times. 2.First wash your hands. 3.Gently pull the lower eyelid down while the person looks up. Or Gently pull the upper eyelid up while the person looks down. 4.Use a cotton swab (q-tip) and lightly touch the object if you can see it. 5.Flush the eye with a sterile saline solution or tap water. Tilt the head to the side when flushing the eye. 6.If the person is wearing contacts, flush the eye first and then remove the contact.