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Chapter 28 First Aid and Emergencies Lesson 1 Providing First Aid.

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2 Chapter 28 First Aid and Emergencies Lesson 1 Providing First Aid

3 You’ll learn to… Relate the nation’s goal & objectives for improving individual, family, & community health to learning & using appropriate first- aid procedures. Understand the importance of learning first aid. Analyze strategies for responding to accidental injuries.

4 First Aid Is the immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided. Learning first-aid is an important step in meeting the nation’s health goals in Healthy People 2010. Using first-aid can reduce the number of people who sustain further injury or die in the absence of early & effective treatment.

5 Universal Precautions Are actions taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all blood and other body fluids as if they contained pathogens. –Wearing protective gloves –Using a rescue mask –Washing hands before & after providing care

6 Responding to an Emergency Recognizing an emergency is the first step in responding to it. Common indicators of an emergency include: –Unusual sights, sounds, odors, and behaviors

7 Steps to take in an Emergency Check, Call, Care Check the scene and the victim Call for help 9-1-1 or the local emergency number Care for the victim

8 CHECK the scene & the victim Look the scene over & try to answer these questions: 1.Is the scene safe? 2.What happened? 3.How many victims are there? 4.Can bystanders help?

9 Is the scene safe? Spilled chemicals Traffic Fire Downed electrical lines Extreme weather Poisonous gas

10 Checking a victim Never move a seriously injured person unless: There is immediate danger You have to reach a more seriously injured person You need to move a victim to provide proper care

11 Call 9-1-1 Call first situations:  An unconscious person  Cardiac emergencies Call fast situations:  Breathing, bleeding, and other non-cardiac emergencies

12 Care for a Conscious Victim Introduce yourself Get permission to treat Ask what happened Give care

13 Care always care for life-threatening first

14 Types of Injuries

15 Open Wounds Abrasion (scrape) Incision (cut / laceration) Avulsion Puncture


17 Scrape (abrasion) Most common type of wound caused by skin that has been rubbed or scrapped away Usually painful because scraping away of outer skin exposes nerve endings

18 Incision (cut / laceration) May be jagged or smooth edges Commonly caused by sharp objects (glass, knife) Can also be caused by a blow from a blunt object Deep lacerations can result in heavy bleeding and damage to nerves, blood vessels, & other soft tissues.

19 Laceration

20 Avulsion A cut in which a portion of the skin or other soft tissue is partially / completely torn away May hang like a flap Severed (finger) Can sometimes be reattached

21 Puncture Caused when a pointed object pieces the skin (nail, tack, bullet) Is small, but deep Usually does not cause heavy external bleeding, but may cause internal bleeding An object that remains embedded in the wound is called an impaled object

22 Puncture

23 First Aid for Bleeding First put on protective equipment (gloves) Wash a minor wound with mild soap & running water to remove dirt and debris Do not attempt to clean a severe injury (avulsion) Always wash hands before and after care

24 Caring for an Open Wound Control bleeding (sterile dressing-direct pressure) Cover and press firmly Raise / elevate above heart (if no broken bone is suspected) Apply bandage snugly over dressing (if bleeding does not stop apply additional dressing) If bleeding cannot be controlled, put pressure to supplying artery Call for help

25 How to Apply a Pressure Bandage Place a dressing over the wound Secure the roller bandage over the dressing Using overlapping turns, cover the dressing completely Secure the bandage in place; tie tightly over wound Should be tight enough to maintain pressure, but not so tight that it cuts off circulation

26 Pressure Point Bleeding Control If elevating & applying pressure does not stop bleeding, pressure point bleeding control must be used. This procedure involves pressing the main artery against a bone It should be used only when absolutely necessary; seriously injured or possibly in shock.

27 Burns

28 Burns are caused by: Heat – most common Chemicals Electrical current Radiation (from the sun)

29 Burns Are a specific type of soft tissue injury You can describe burns by their cause or by their depth (the deeper the burn, the more severe it is) –First degree are superficial –Second & Third degree are deep A critical burn can be life-threatening

30 Types of Burns

31 Superficial (First Degree) Involve the first layer of skin (outer layer) Skin is red & dry & usually painful May be swollen Most sunburns are superficial Cool the burn with cool running water (not ice) for 10 minutes Pat dry & cover with a sterile bandage.


33 Partial Thickness (Second Degree) Involves top layers of skin Skin is red & blistered that may open & seep clear fluid Usually painful & often swells Cool the burn with cold water (not ice) and elevate. Wrap the area loosely with sterile, dry dressing. Do not pop blisters Seek medical attention



36 Full Thickness (Third Degree) Destroys all layers of skin & any/all underlying structures (fat, muscle/bones,nerves) Burns look brown/black (charred) with tissue underneath appearing white Can be either extremely painful or relatively painless (nerve endings destroyed) Call for medical help immediately Cool with large amount of water and cover the area with dry sterile dressing



39 Special Kinds of Burns

40 Chemical Burns Chemicals (cleansers, lawn & garden sprays, paint removers, bleach) come in contact with skin or eyes May cause severe burns (longer contact) Flush with large amounts of cool running water Remove clothing


42 Electrical Burns Never go near a victim of an electrical burn until you are sure the power source is turned off Caused by: –Power lines –Lightning –Defective electrical equipment –Electrical outlets

43 Electrical Burns continued Severity depends on how long the victim was in contact with power source & strength & type of current & path it takes Often deep Two wounds-enter/exit

44 Ch 28 Lesson 1- Review Questions 1.Define first aid 2.Why is it necessary to use universal precautions when giving first aid to a person who is bleeding? 3.What two universal precautions that a person should follow when giving first aid to another person? 4.What are the first three things you should do when you recognize an emergency situation? 5. Most burns are caused by?

45 Ch 28 Lesson 1- Review Questions Continued… 6. What are the types of burns? 7. What are the four types of open wounds? 8. _____ A cut caused by a razor blade is called a. an abrasionc. a puncture b. a lacerationd. an avulsion 9. ____ Puncture wounds usually cause heavy external bleeding. 10. ____ A severed body part should be packed in ice or ice water to preserve the tissue. (true or false)

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