2VocabularySoft tissues - Body structures that include the layers of skin, fat, and muscles.Wound - An injury to the soft tissue.Burn - An injury to the skin or to other body tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity or radiation.Dressing - A pad placed directly over a wound to absorb blood and other body fluids and to prevent infection.
3Soft TissuesThe soft tissues include the layers of skin, fat, and muscle that protect the underlying body structures.Epidermis – Provides a barrier to bacteria and other organisms that can cause infection.Dermis – Contains the nerves, sweat glands, oil glands, and blood vessels.Hypodermis – Contains fat, blood vessels and connective tissues.Adipose – Insulates the body to help maintain body temperature, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
4WoundsClosed wound – Skin’s surface is not broken; tissue damage and any bleeding occur below the surfaceContusion – The simplest closed wound, also called a bruise. When a bump or blow occurs, it results in damage to soft tissue layers and vessels, causing internal bleeding. Blood and other fluids seep into surrounding tissues, causing discoloration and swelling.
5Closed WoundsContusion – The simplest closed wound, also called a bruise. When a bump or blow occurs, it results in damage to soft tissue layers and vessels, causing internal bleeding. Blood and other fluids seep into surrounding tissues, causing discoloration and swelling.
6Signals of Severe Internal Bleeding: Rapid breathingExcessive thirstAn injured extremity that is blue or extremely pale
7Open WoundsOpen wounds - Skin’s surface is broken and blood may come through
8Open Wounds Abrasion – Skin that has been rubbed or scraped away. Laceration – A cut, which may have either jagged or smooth edges.Avulsion – A portion of the skin and sometimes other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away.Amputation – A body part that is severed.Puncture/Penetration – when the skin is pierced with a pointed object.
10Minor Wounds Use a barrier between you and the victim Apply direct pressure for a few minutes to control bleedingWash the wound thoroughly with soap and water and gently dry with clean gauzeCover with clean dressing and a bandageWash hands immediately after
11Major Wounds Call 911 or emergency local number Put on gloves Control external bleeding by:Cover with dressing and press firmlyApply pressure bandageIf blood soaks through, do not remove the original bandage, add more
12Major Wounds(page 2) Monitor persons condition Have person rest comfortablyWash your hands
13Embedded/Impaled Objects Call 911Put on disposable glovesDo not remove objectApply direct pressure to edges of the woundUse a bulky dressing to stabilize the objectControl bleeding by bandaging the dressing in place around the objectWash hands immediately after
14Infection Care: Keep area clean Soak in clean, warm water Apply antibiotic ointment
15Burns 1st Degree 2nd Degree 3rd Degree Care for burns Chemical Electrical
161st Degree Also called a superficial burn. Involve only the top layer of skinCause skin to become red and dry; are usually painful; and the area may swellUsually heal within a week
172nd Degree Also called a partial-thickness burn. Involve the top layers of skinCause skin to become red; are usually painful; have blisters that may open and weep clear fluidUsually heal in 3 to 4 weeks
183rd Degree Also called a full-thickness burn. May destroy all layers of skin and some or all of the underlying structures.The skin may be brown or black (charred), with the tissue underneath, can either be extremely painful or painless (If the burn destroys nerve endings).Healing requires medical assistance; scarring is likely.
19Care For Burns Heat (Thermal) Stop the burning by removing the person from the source of the burnCheck for life-threatening conditionsCool the burn with large amounts of cold running waterCover loosely with a sterile dressingTake steps to minimize shockComfort and reassure the person
20Care For Burns Chemical Remove the chemical from the skin, be careful not to get the chemical on yourselfFlush the burn with large amounts of cool running water. Continue for 20 minutes.Take steps to minimize shock
21Care For Burns Electrical Check the scene If possible, turn off the power at its source and care for any life threatening emergenciesCall 911Care for shock and thermal burnsLook for entry and exit woundsCheck for additional injuries