Vocabulary Soft tissues - Body structures that include the layers of skin, fat, and muscles. Wound - An injury to the soft tissue. Burn - An injury to the skin or to other body tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity or radiation. Dressing - A pad placed directly over a wound to absorb blood and other body fluids and to prevent infection.
Soft Tissues The soft tissues include the layers of skin, fat, and muscle that protect the underlying body structures. Epidermis – Provides a barrier to bacteria and other organisms that can cause infection. Dermis – Contains the nerves, sweat glands, oil glands, and blood vessels. Hypodermis – Contains fat, blood vessels and connective tissues. Adipose – Insulates the body to help maintain body temperature, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Wounds Closed wound – Skin’s surface is not broken; tissue damage and any bleeding occur below the surface Contusion – The simplest closed wound, also called a bruise. When a bump or blow occurs, it results in damage to soft tissue layers and vessels, causing internal bleeding. Blood and other fluids seep into surrounding tissues, causing discoloration and swelling.
Closed Wounds Contusion – The simplest closed wound, also called a bruise. When a bump or blow occurs, it results in damage to soft tissue layers and vessels, causing internal bleeding. Blood and other fluids seep into surrounding tissues, causing discoloration and swelling.
Signals of Severe Internal Bleeding: Rapid breathing Excessive thirst An injured extremity that is blue or extremely pale
Open Wounds Open wounds - Skin’s surface is broken and blood may come through
Open Wounds Abrasion – Skin that has been rubbed or scraped away. Laceration – A cut, which may have either jagged or smooth edges. Avulsion – A portion of the skin and sometimes other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away. Amputation – A body part that is severed. Puncture/Penetration – when the skin is pierced with a pointed object.
General Care Minor Wounds Major Wounds Embedded/Impaled Objects
Minor Wounds Use a barrier between you and the victim Apply direct pressure for a few minutes to control bleeding Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water and gently dry with clean gauze Cover with clean dressing and a bandage Wash hands immediately after
Major Wounds Call 911 or emergency local number Put on gloves Control external bleeding by: o Cover with dressing and press firmly o Apply pressure bandage o If blood soaks through, do not remove the original bandage, add more
Major Wounds(page 2) Monitor persons condition Have person rest comfortably Wash your hands
Embedded/Impaled Objects Call 911 Put on disposable gloves Do not remove object Apply direct pressure to edges of the wound Use a bulky dressing to stabilize the object Control bleeding by bandaging the dressing in place around the object Wash hands immediately after
Infection Care: o Keep area clean o Soak in clean, warm water o Apply antibiotic ointment
Burns 1 st Degree 2 nd Degree 3 rd Degree Care for burns Chemical Electrical
1 st Degree Also called a superficial burn. Involve only the top layer of skin Cause skin to become red and dry; are usually painful; and the area may swell Usually heal within a week
2 nd Degree Also called a partial-thickness burn. Involve the top layers of skin Cause skin to become red; are usually painful; have blisters that may open and weep clear fluid Usually heal in 3 to 4 weeks
3 rd Degree Also called a full-thickness burn. May destroy all layers of skin and some or all of the underlying structures. The skin may be brown or black (charred), with the tissue underneath, can either be extremely painful or painless (If the burn destroys nerve endings). Healing requires medical assistance; scarring is likely.
Care For Burns Heat (Thermal) Stop the burning by removing the person from the source of the burn Check for life-threatening conditions Cool the burn with large amounts of cold running water Cover loosely with a sterile dressing Take steps to minimize shock Comfort and reassure the person
Care For Burns Chemical Remove the chemical from the skin, be careful not to get the chemical on yourself Flush the burn with large amounts of cool running water. Continue for 20 minutes. Take steps to minimize shock
Care For Burns Electrical Check the scene If possible, turn off the power at its source and care for any life threatening emergencies Call 911 Care for shock and thermal burns Look for entry and exit wounds Check for additional injuries