Presentation on theme: "The Late Middle Ages 1300 to 1500 Chapter 6, Lesson 4 EQ: How did disruptive forces affect people in European society?"— Presentation transcript:
The Late Middle Ages 1300 to 1500 Chapter 6, Lesson 4 EQ: How did disruptive forces affect people in European society?
Academic Vocabulary (pg. 120) Bubonic plague (pg. 120) The Great Schism (pg. 122) anti-Semitism Babylonian captivity Joan of Arc Hundred Year’s War
1. Background: The Crusades For God, Gold, and Salvation!
The Crusades: The Crusades were a series of holy wars fought for control of the city of Jerusalem Jerusalem = holy city for people of three faiths – Jews: God’s own city and the site of Solomon’s temple – Christians: city where Jesus was crucified and resurrected – Muslims: 3 rd holiest city and place where Muhammad ascended into heaven
In the late 1000’s the Muslims took control of Jerusalem The Byzantine Emperor wrote to the pope asking for military help!
The 1 st Crusade 1095 Pope Urban II asked for volunteers to fight for Jerusalem Reasons why people wanted to fight in the Crusades – Peasants wanted freedom from lords while fighting – Everyone promised salvation in heaven – Adventure and possibility of wealth * The Christians win this Crusade-killed Muslims/ Jews!!
Later Crusades By the 1200’s Europeans no longer fought for religious reason, but for wealth Instead of going to Jerusalem = Crusaders attacked the Christian city of Constantinople!!!!! – Burn, loot, and massacre the city Led to bitterness between the Eastern Orthodox world (Eastern Roman Empire) and Western Europe (Roman Catholic Church)
Effects of the Crusades Broke down feudalism and increased the power of the kings Trade revived as demand for foreign goods increased Crusaders learned many useful skills from Muslims – Build better ships – Make more accurate maps – Improved weaponry – Use of magnetic compass
2. Black Death Bubonic Plague Arrives!
The Black Death Arrives Before the plague, there was a famine from (1315 to 1322)= killed 10% of Europe’s population. The Black Death, or bubonic plague, was a bacterial infection which killed 38 million people throughout Europe out of 75 million. Begins in 1347 and comes back in waves in different areas in Europe.
First area hit was Italy, ships trading with Asia sailed into Italian ports with plague- infested rats. The rats got to shore. Poor sanitation of the time allowed for the quick spread of the disease. Plague spread more quickly in cities where people lived close together. The plague travelled via trade route throughout Europe.
People could be infected with the plague and not show symptoms for weeks. When plague broke out in a town people would flee, not knowing they were infected, and start plague in another town.
Impact of the Black Death 1. Decline in population: 38 million people died – labor shortage throughout Europe. 2. Labor shortage: the plague helped improve working conditions for peasants in Europe. – Many could demand wages for the first time. 3. Decline Feudalism: Many peasants asked for freedom for their lords or had lost their lords to the plague.
4. The power of the church declined-- people lost faith in a church, it was unable to save them from such as disaster. 5. Disruption of Trade: The plague caused trade to break down. – People feared travelers and “plague goods” which may carry the disease. 6. Anti-Semitism in Europe – People blamed the Jews for the plague.
In this fourteenth-century English text, a priest blesses monks who have the bubonic plague. 3. Determining Cause and Effect Considering the images above, how did the plague affect people psychologically? ACTIVITY 1.Primary Source Read the account of the Black Death in Italy, then answer the corresponding questions.
3. The Rise of Kings One Hundred Years of War
The Hundred Years’ War Between 1337 and 1453 England and France fought a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years’ War for territory English were winning at first because of their new weapons: cannon and longbow
The Hundred Years’ War 1429 Joan of Arc told the French King that God had called her to save France She led the French to victory at Orleans Soon after Joan was captured by the English, tried for witchcraft and burned at the stake arc/videos/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us-the- plague?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
The Hundred Years’ War By the end of the war in 1453 France was victorious Hundred Years’ War led to the decline of feudalism – Longbow and cannon made knight warfare outdated – Monarchs replaced feudal soldiers with national armies of hired soldiers
Activity: After 100 years of war Page 124 Read 4. Political Recovery Summarize the Political Recovery experience by France, Spain, and England in the 1400s after the Hundred Year’s War. – How did the kings centralized power? – How did the kings make themselves powerful?
The Great Schism (Split) 4. Decline of Church Power
Babylonian Captivity In 1305 a French pope, Clement V, was elected Clement V decided to move his court from Rome to Avignon (France) Papacy became influenced by the French; only elected French Cardinals, all new popes were French Papacy remained in Avignon until 1377
Babylonian Captivity This time period is known as the Babylonian Captivity This caused much unrest with the Catholics who were used to the pope living in Rome
The Great Schism (Split) In 1377 Pope Gregory XI left Avignon and returned to Rome When he died, Roman mobs forced the French Cardinals to elect and Italian Pope The French cardinals later declared that election invalid, claiming they had voted under pressure
The Great Schism The Cardinals then elected a second pope who settled in Avignon The Italian pope refused to resign. Now there were two popes!!!!!! Great Schism This controversy became known as the Great Schism and lasted from 1378 to 1417
A council of Cardinals then elected Pope Martin V, ending the Great Schism The Great Schism weakened the political power of the Church and made Europeans feel a greater loyalty to their monarchs than the pope By the early 1400s, the Church had lost much of its political power--the pope could no longer assert supremacy over the state
Home Learning: Ch. 6, Lesson 4 Questions #3-6 (pg. 125, textbook) DUE TUESDAY, January Drawing Conclusions: What social and economic effects did the Black Death have on Europe? 4. Evaluating: How did the Great Schism and other crisis lead to the decline of Church power? 5. Inferring: Why was the Hundred Year’s war a turning point in warfare, and what were its consequences? 6. Making Generalization: What kind of political recovery occurred in Europe in the 1400s?