Presentation on theme: "The Late Middle Ages 1300 to 1500 Chapter 6, Lesson 4 EQ: How did disruptive forces affect people in European society?"— Presentation transcript:
1The Late Middle Ages 1300 to 1500 Chapter 6, Lesson 4 EQ: How did disruptive forces affect people in European society?
2Academic Vocabulary (pg. 120) Bubonic plague (pg. 120)The Great Schism (pg. 122)anti-SemitismBabylonian captivityJoan of ArcHundred Year’s War
31. Background: The Crusades For God, Gold, and Salvation!
4The Crusades:The Crusades were a series of holy wars fought for control of the city of JerusalemJerusalem = holy city for people of three faithsJews: God’s own city and the site of Solomon’s templeChristians: city where Jesus was crucified and resurrectedMuslims: 3rd holiest city and place where Muhammad ascended into heaven
5In the late 1000’s the Muslims took control of Jerusalem The Byzantine Emperor wrote to the pope asking for military help!
6The 1st Crusade1095 Pope Urban II asked for volunteers to fight for JerusalemReasons why people wanted to fight in the CrusadesPeasants wanted freedom from lords while fightingEveryone promised salvation in heavenAdventure and possibility of wealth* The Christians win this Crusade-killed Muslims/ Jews!!
7Later CrusadesBy the 1200’s Europeans no longer fought for religious reason, but for wealthInstead of going to Jerusalem = Crusaders attacked the Christian city of Constantinople!!!!!Burn, loot, and massacre the cityLed to bitterness between the Eastern Orthodox world (Eastern Roman Empire) and Western Europe (Roman Catholic Church)
8Effects of the Crusades Broke down feudalism and increased the power of the kingsTrade revived as demand for foreign goods increasedCrusaders learned many useful skills from MuslimsBuild better shipsMake more accurate mapsImproved weaponryUse of magnetic compass
9Bubonic Plague Arrives! 2. Black DeathBubonic Plague Arrives!
10The Black Death Arrives Before the plague, there was a famine from (1315 to 1322)= killed 10% of Europe’s population.The Black Death, or bubonic plague, was a bacterial infection which killed 38 million people throughout Europe out of 75 million.Begins in 1347 and comes back in waves in different areas in Europe.
11First area hit was Italy, ships trading with Asia sailed into Italian ports with plague-infested rats.The rats got to shore.Poor sanitation of the time allowed for the quick spread of the disease.Plague spread more quickly in cities where people lived close together.The plague travelled via trade route throughout Europe.
12People could be infected with the plague and not show symptoms for weeks. When plague broke out in a town people would flee, not knowing they were infected, and start plague in another town.
14Impact of the Black Death 1. Decline in population: 38 million people diedlabor shortage throughout Europe.2. Labor shortage: the plague helped improve working conditions for peasants in Europe.Many could demand wages for the first time.3. Decline Feudalism: Many peasants asked for freedom for their lords or had lost their lords to the plague.
155. Disruption of Trade: The plague caused trade to break down. 4. The power of the church declined-- people lost faith in a church, it was unable to save them from such as disaster.5. Disruption of Trade: The plague caused trade to break down.People feared travelers and “plague goods” which may carry the disease.6. Anti-Semitism in EuropePeople blamed theJews for the plague.
16ACTIVITY Primary Source Read the account of the Black Death in Italy, then answer the corresponding questions.In this fourteenth-century English text, a priest blesses monks who have the bubonic plague.3. Determining Cause and Effect Considering the images above, how did the plague affect people psychologically?
17One Hundred Years of War 3. The Rise of KingsOne Hundred Years of War
18The Hundred Years’ WarBetween 1337 and 1453 England and France fought a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years’ War for territoryEnglish were winning at first because of their new weapons: cannon and longbow
19The Hundred Years’ War1429 Joan of Arc told the French King that God had called her to save FranceShe led the French to victory at OrleansSoon after Joan was captured by the English, tried for witchcraft and burned at the stake
20The Hundred Years’ WarBy the end of the war in 1453 France was victoriousHundred Years’ War led to the decline of feudalismLongbow and cannon made knight warfare outdatedMonarchs replaced feudal soldiers with national armies of hired soldiers
21Activity: After 100 years of war Page 124Read 4. Political RecoverySummarize the Political Recovery experience by France, Spain, and England in the 1400s after the Hundred Year’s War.How did the kings centralized power?How did the kings make themselves powerful?
224. Decline of Church Power The Great Schism (Split)4. Decline of Church Power
23Babylonian Captivity In 1305 a French pope, Clement V, was elected Clement V decided to move his court from Rome to Avignon (France)Papacy became influenced by the French; only elected French Cardinals, all new popes were FrenchPapacy remained in Avignon until 1377
24This time period is known as the Babylonian Captivity This caused much unrest with the Catholics who were used to the pope living in Rome
25The Great Schism (Split) In 1377 Pope Gregory XI left Avignon and returned to RomeWhen he died, Roman mobs forced the French Cardinals to elect and Italian PopeThe French cardinals later declared that election invalid, claiming they had voted under pressure
26The Great SchismThe Cardinals then elected a second pope who settled in AvignonThe Italian pope refused to resign. Now there were two popes!!!!!!This controversy became known as the Great Schism and lasted from 1378 to 1417
27A council of Cardinals then elected Pope Martin V, ending the Great Schism The Great Schism weakened the political power of the Church and made Europeans feel a greater loyalty to their monarchs than the popeBy the early 1400s, the Church had lost much of its political power--the pope could no longer assert supremacy over the state
28Home Learning: Ch. 6, Lesson 4 Questions #3-6 (pg. 125, textbook) DUE TUESDAY, January 20.3. Drawing Conclusions: What social and economic effects did the Black Death have on Europe?4. Evaluating: How did the Great Schism and other crisis lead to the decline of Church power?5. Inferring: Why was the Hundred Year’s war a turning point in warfare, and what were its consequences?6. Making Generalization: What kind of political recovery occurred in Europe in the 1400s?